Whatever electronic and digital device you have, it depends on a printed circuit board for signals transmission to help it operate. These devices need a well-designed structure and manufacturing, but you have to encounter many issues in this case that we will discuss here.
Any issue in the design of a PCB would cause delays in its manufacturing, so you must know how to avoid them. Similarly, some problems happen before the design that designers can avoid through proper strategies.
The designer should consider certain steps for a successful design, such as project management and its timeline. You should allocate the project resources and time like there should be enough time to edit your design according to the rules. Sometimes the designers miss certain schedules in a hurry, delivering an incomplete design having many errors.
The designer should be an expert in using the latest design tools. You must have a complete library of CAD materials and should also know the basic design rules. Though these steps look minor, they should be in hand before starting a PCB layout. Now, we will discuss some common PC design issues, so let’s begin.
Sometimes the designers choose the wrong components just to speed up the process, but it can affect a circuit board’s effectiveness. Designers often go for an existing circuitry or select an old and familiar library as it’s convenient for them. But, it becomes a problem when such components or parts are not feasible due to their price or they are not available. So, the designers should be well-informed in terms of design libraries and should choose the Printed Circuit Board parts wisely.
The designers often choose familiar things related to materials, board layout, and outline, as well as the stack-up for layers. However, the prices of such materials may change, besides, their availability can also become an issue. Such changes can affect the design rules according to a different substrate. Likewise, the outline of the PCB also changes due to the design and fabrication limits. So, the designer should discuss all design parameters with their manufacturer before designing the layout.
A PCB has different components and their footprints should be well-placed on a PCB for precise manufacturing, and it’s called the DFM or Design for Manufacturing for a circuit board manufacturer. If you ignore the DFM, it would result in a high-cost and less effective PCB.
There are certain DFM rules to follow in terms of distance between the components and the circuit board’s edges, the distance between different components, and spacing between various features of the board and components.
There should be enough space around the test points to help a circuit board get tested automatically. You should also consider the placement of the parts that get hot as it can result in thermal issues, affecting a PCB’s performance. Moreover, the high-frequency components should be located in such a way as to have powerful signals.
Another PCB design issue is regarding the incorrect trace routing. Like, the widths of the traces and their distance should be correct. The designer should discuss these parameters with their manufacturers to have a precise trace width. Moreover, the weight of the copper should also be correct for perfect routing.
At the same time, the designers should input these values into the design rules while working through CAD. By having well-planed rules and design limits, you can avoid issues regarding a controlled impedance or routing. You can also reduce the burning of traces that occurs due to a lack of copper in case of high currents. You can also eliminate poor signals, and poor copper balancing that happens on the layers of a PCB.
Similarly, the issue of the thin high-voltage traces is also there. Sometimes the trace of a circuit board needs a high voltage that a small trace of less width can’t handle. So, you must calculate the trace width through PCB software, like CAD which has a width calculator for PCB traces.
The designer also has to consider the suitable rise in the temperature for certain traces that helps them to evaluate the current capacity of the trace to choose a compatible copper weight
Moreover, you need high-frequency routing for high-speed signals. Trace routing is not an issue in the case of microcontroller PCBs because they do not need high-speed signals. But, the trace paths need attention for the high-frequency circuit boards because of the address bus and external data.
Most designers ignore a network that delivers the power and sometimes they don’t even think about it. If you don’t have a well-designed ground, it would result in poor signals with the noise and EMI emissions. So, the designer should focus on these issues with proper planning after discussing them with the manufacturer. You should know the precise configuration and planes’ location in the layer stack of a PC BOARD.
The design of the ground planes is important to avoid the blockage of signals’ return paths. Moreover, you can also control the interference of the ground and analog with each other by considering these points. Both ground and analog are different in terms of circuitry.
The electric devices involve the linear and switching regulators in terms of voltage. There is low energy by linear regulators, but they are less costly and many PCB designers use them for this reason. But, the linear regulators are not easy for low-noise applications that use high power.
Whereas the switching regulators involve more complicated designs than linear regulators. They are effective in terms of energy, but they need a detailed design for a PCB. So, you have to be careful in this case and should follow the datasheet rules strictly.
A PCB is just a part of a large electronic device having a specific system that a designer has to consider. However, most designers focus on just the design of a circuit board. Such ignorance can cause several issues during the PCB assembly, such as incompatible wires and board connectors, inaccessible human interfaces or switches, and the lack of space for repair or system debugging. So, the electrical engineers should focus on the design of the full system instead of just a circuit board.
The electrical parts of a circuit board need stable electricity without interruption. The hardware of a PCB involves decoupling capacitors for stable voltage and this decoupling happens on the rail that supplies the power. You must place the decoupling capacitors close to the pin for maximum and stable current to help it pass through the decoupling capacitors before it reaches the pin.
All these issues are technical that affect the hardware of circuit boards. You must solve these issues to have an effective and functioning product or device.
You can avoid or eliminate the above problems by accessing suitable design resources. You can easily find them online from different companies that offer PCB design, manufacturing, and also provide calculators to calculate specific design parameters. Such companies also offer PCB design and manufacturing services other than just guiding you in a PCB design.
What Is Meant By PCB?
PCB is an abbreviation of Printed Circuit Board. It is used in electrical devices to provide them with signals or current to operate. Printed circuit boards are used in different industries, including networking, electronics industry, gadgets, aerospace, and much more.
What Is DFM In A PCB?
DFM is Design for Manufacturing which means you have to have a special layout design for a PCB to be manufactured correctly. You will have to face many issues if there is no DFM.
What Are PCB Design Issues?
PCB design involves different issues regarding its components, power supply, routing, design parameters, decoupling of capacitors, layers stuck-up, copper weight, etc.
Any issue in the design of a PCB would cause delays in its manufacturing, so you must know how to avoid them. PCB design involves different issues regarding its components, power supply, routing, design parameters, decoupling of capacitors, layers stuck-up, copper weight, etc.
The designer should consider certain steps for a successful PCB design, such as project management and its timeline. You should allocate the project resources and time like there should be enough time to edit your design according to the rules. Sometimes the designers miss certain schedules in a hurry, delivering an incomplete design having many errors.
All these issues are technical that affect the hardware of circuit boards. You must solve these issues to have an effective and functioning product or device. You can avoid or eliminate the above problems by accessing suitable design resources. You can easily find them online from different companies that offer PCB design, manufacturing, and also provide calculators to calculate specific design parameters.
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