Tag Archives: Printed Circuit Board

Blind and Buried Vias in PCB Board Technology

Blind and Buried Vias in PC Board Technology

PCBs are used to enhance a circuit’s function and stability. There are different vias in a PCB, PC Board, including the blind and buried via. We need to connect different layers in the PCB through a specific via, depending on its design. In general, vias are holes finished in copper, and their position depends on if the PCB is double-sided, or multi-layered.

Here, we will explore the blind and buried via, their benefits, construction, and guidelines to implement them. Before we go into details, you must know the meaning of via, and its role in the PCB.

Understanding Vias

A copper-finished hole in the PCB is known as via, and it joins both layers of a two-sided PCB. The standard via is a hole that starts from one layer and goes up to the second layer in a double-layer board, and it is also known as a through-hole via. A through via is not ideal for a high-density PCB because it takes more space, affecting the board thickness or density.

So, PCB designers prefer a blind or buried via for the multi-layered or HDI boards.

What Is A Blind Via

In blind via, the hole connects the outer layer of the PCB to its inner layer. The outer layer, in this case, can be either top or the bottom layer. It is applied to the HDI or high-density interconnection boards. Blind via enhances the PCB density through the closed placement of its components.

What Is A Buried Via?

The buried via is a hole that connects two inner layers of a PCB board. The name buried is because the hole is buried in between both upper and lower layers. Besides, you can drill it in many layers of a multi-density PCB. A buried via is also used in the HDI PCBs. There are also other types of PCB vias that we will discuss in the end.

Manufacturing Of Via

There are two ways to make a PCB via like the hole is drilled either before adding various layers to the circuit board, or after making all layers. The manufacturer drills all vias and then finishes them in copper.

• You must take care of the drill depth while making the buried and blind vias, because an extra deep hole can distort signals, reducing their speed.
• On the other hand, a very shallow hole can break a connection, affecting the PCB performance. Even, the PCB can stop working due to poor drilling, so give it to expert hands.
• The manufacturer should also know all the dos and don’ts of pcb assembly. So, always hire a good designer and manufacturer for your custom PCB.

How To Fill Or Cover Vias

Via cover must prevent the entrapment of chemicals or other substances within the holes, which can eventually cause defects to the printed circuit board. Vias are filled with conductive or non-conductive paste. Blind vias and via-in-pads are filled with well-designed electroplating.
If you are looking to move heat from one side of the printed circuit board to the other, you will likely opt for a conductive fill.
Vias must be sealed or covered by copper plating. The combination of the sequential build-up of technology and the mechanical processes can disturb the buried via plating, resulting in problems with the board. To prevent this problem, the vias are filled with resin before being plated.
A via-in-pad must be plated because you are putting in a component connection, and you can’t have a recessed hole.
Now, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of blind and buried vias.

Advantages That You Get From Blind And Buried Vias

1. The blind and buried vias help design a PCB faster than other methods.
2. In the case of typical boards, these vias are compatible with the component density, and you don’t need to add more layers to your board.
3. Both blind and buried vias enhance the function of the HDI boards, providing high power. They are ideal for BGA components of precise pitch, as they provide a wide surface area, unlike the through-hole vias.
4. They are the best for a multilayered PCB, like a board with a minimum of 4 layers. These vias help where a through-plated via fails to meet the PCB performance requirements. These holes don’t have to face the density limitations of a typical PCB design.
5. They enhance the board density without a need to increase the PCB size. So, you can use the blind and buried vias for high-end PCB products. Such types of vias are ideal for consumer products or electronics.

Disadvantage

The blind and buried vias increase the overall cost of the PCB because of extra manufacturing work. So, they are costly than typical PCBs, because you need more time for hole drilling and other processes. Keep this factor in your mind before ordering your HDI circuit board with blind and buried holes.

Tips To Consider For Selecting The Right PCB Via

Both users and PCB designers should work together to bring the best product. The buyer should tell the designer about his requirements, like PCB components, size, type of via, number of connectors, etc.

Select A Suitable Type Of Via

You must choose the right type of via for a PCB. Like, if the board has several layers, go for blind and buried via. But, choose a through-hole via for a one-sided PCB. There are also other types of vias and the designer must know where to fit them.
Compatible Via Size And Tolerance

Generally, the PCB thickness determines the size of via it should have. A standard via has a 10 mil size that becomes 7 mils after copper plating. Whereas in micro via, you can have a 4 mil via, be it mechanically or laser drilled. Moreover, the hole or via should have enough size or tolerance to hold the connectors.

Compatible Technology

The blind and buried vias don’t go well on all boards. So, the PCB supplier must choose a stack up compatible with via technology, and the same goes to other via types.

Follow The IPC Guidelines

The designers should always consider the IPC guidelines in terms of technology. Like, they should focus on the right distance between vias in case of several layers. Every PCB supplier should have the IPC design guidelines to avoid any mistakes. The guidelines regarding Class 2, Class 3, Class 3DS are essential to consider as they are not similar.

Consider The Angular Ring Requirements

After drilling each layer’s pad, comes the stage of the annular ring and its requirements should be according to Class 2 and 3. The driller should know how to deal with tolerances while drilling through PCB.

The annular ring helps to have enough surface in the internal layers, maintaining the copper connection on a specific layer before a through-hole plating. Like, you should maintain the electrical connections keeping in mind the material and drill tolerances,

Micro Via Plating

When it comes to a micro via, you should give the right requirements to your PCB supplier. Like, how do fill via; through electrical or thermal epoxy and then copper plate it? This step helps to have a well-finished PCB, preventing vias from external elements.

The Drill File
Each connection has a via or hole that must be according to the drill file. In a blind via, the drill diameter and hole’s depth ratio should be 1:1; however, it can be more depending on the PCB thickness.
In the case of buried via, this ratio should be 1:12, but it can be more depending on the HDI PCB.

Other via Types

We have discussed the blind, buried, and through-hole vias, but there are also types of vias used for PCB design, so let’s study them.
Micro via: A micro via is smaller than all other vias. Even a naked eye can’t see it as it’s so small, so you need a microscope. They are used for a high-density PCB to provide more routing area.
A micro via reduces the issues, such as parasitic resistance that is common in the HDI boards. But, the micro via involves more time to drill and care, so the PCB designers prefer teardrops.
Stacked via: The stacked vias are also laminated and they are either buried or blind vias. A stacked via connects different layers on PCB. They appear to be on top of each other, so they are known as stacked vias.
Staggered via: the staggered vias are also used for multilayered PCBs, but they don’t overlap so we call them staggered. This via has a complex design but it involves less cost compared to the stacked via.
Skip via: The skip via is a hole that passes through different PCB layers but it does not have any electrical connection with specific layers. A skip via is either blind, buried, or overlapping.
Via-in-pad: It is common via used for large PCB pads, such as BGA or MOSFET. Such vias help to have components’ thermal dissipation. However, the designer knows if via in pad is suitable or not because it may affect soldering.
Whether it’s blind, buried, or some other via, you must hire an experienced PCB manufacturing company. The manufacturer should be professional and know the drilling techniques to make these vias.

PNC is providing top-notch PCB design and assembling services at affordable rates. Interested to know more about PCB Vias, write us at sales@pnconline.com

10 Best PCB Design Software

10 Best PCB Design Software

As the electronic industry is growing day by day, the demand for better and efficient printed circuit boards is also increasing. With a massive growth in wearable technology, printed circuit boards need to be of high quality and accurately designed to perform well. As we know that every electronic device either large or small, completely relies on the printed circuit board. They function as the heart of any device. Any digital gadget you are using in your daily life, either it’s your smartphone or your smartwatch, or maybe a digital calculator or most probably a digital clock, this all is possible because of the evolution in the modern printed circuit board. The rapid growth in printed circuit boards has made it possible for engineers to decrease the size of the daily used gadgets and make them available in hands.

Complex devices such as smartphones and smartwatches and military applications, all require some specific kind of printed circuit board installed into them depending on the requirement. Testing the reason for designing a printed circuit board is a task that needs to be done carefully. Designing the printed circuit board means giving a physical existence to your idea of a printed circuit board. Engineers want to use the best software for the design sign of the printed circuit board. For a better designing experience, much software is designed to help the engineers in making the best designs.

There are several choices available once you start searching for the best software to design a printed circuit board. But you need to know certain factors before designing your circuit board. Let’s look into this.

How to choose the right software for designing a PCB?

As we have discussed before, with the increasing demand for wearable technology, the demand for the best-printed circuit board design is increasing accordingly. And this process needs to be taken care of because printed circuit boards act as the main core function of any device whether it is small or large. Now the question may arise why designing is so important before the manufacturing process of printed circuit boards. The simple answer is to avoid problems.

Once the design is not done right, it can cause several problems after and before the manufacturers of printed circuit boards. It may cause the failure of the entire system which is not acceptable. So simply means to say that the design affects almost all the aspects of the circuit board. If the design is not right for the device if the material is not according to mark if the traces are not put correctly if the vias are not connected properly then the circuit board will not work or may work in some unexpected ways.

The problem may happen as lack of desired functionality and overheating which can further lead to devise failure. So, the key to success is to design the right software. But as you have seen, the market has grown up so immensely, it is not possible to choose the best software according to your requirement at once. Instead, you need to research certain factors so that you can make sure that you are choosing the right.

Easy to learn:

Well, this applies to almost every device. Even if it is not specifically electronics, it should be easy enough that it can be learned so fast. In other cases, it would overwhelm the user and the user will get distracted or lose his interest. So, the best software should be in easy language, not coding but the basic understanding should be done with keeping the user view in mind. Moreover, the learning period should be shorter as well as easy. The shorter the learning curve is, the sooner the user can start using the software. So, it is compulsory to keep the user interested in your hands.

On the other hand, a steeper learning curve means the longest period on how to do the program. In this way, the user will learn for so long without implementation and this is not the desired phase. For achieving the best experience, the user must be hitting the ground sooner by keeping the learning curve shorter. But you need to ensure that you are not compromising on specific features of the software.

Easy to use:

At first glance, the user is not looking toward the amazing features, component libraries, and automation, instead, he is looking at the ability of how easy it is to use the software. The level of its complexity will let the user decide if he should be going with a particular software or not. The developer needs to deep down the subject from user intuitiveness to accessing tools easily, this is a wide topic and difficult to handle. If the user’s interface and view of using and accessing the tool are easy then your software is the easily available choice.

The number of clicking and Keystroke should be kept as minimum as it can to avoid ambiguity in the software. Moreover, designing software by keeping the lay audience in mind is also a good approach. In this way, you will intentionally keep the software as easy as possible.

Cost:

Although the features, learning period, and complexity of using software also matter in the market, the main thing that matters is how much it costs. The cost is something that a user is going to see at first. So, it should be kept in mind that your features are not crossing the cost limit. It should be cost-friendly so users can purchase it immediately for an easy design experience.

Now you have enough idea how to choose the best software in the market for designing printed circuit boards. Let us see the best available software in the market in 2022 that you can choose without thinking for a minute.

EAGLE (Easy Applicable Graphical Layout Editor)

Eagle helps in the design of electronic EDA. It helps the designers of the electronics field specifically in designing the best-printed circuit board design by allowing them to connect different schematic circuit board diagrams. The other main feature of an eagle is its user interface which is so user-friendly and designed by keeping the lay audience in mind. It also helps in transforming the vision into files with the help of stimulation and then the Printed Circuit board Fabrication process.

Altium Designer:
Altium is another best design software for printed circuit boards. It is no less than the eagle and mostly both are compared on behalf of features because both offer easy functionality. Altium offers both 2D and 3D toggles depending upon the designer’s needs. STEP model is followed for working in Altium.

Moreover, the PCB design can be improved by using the previous designs available. The 3D model is monitored by accessing mechanical data. Additionally, Altium allows the exchange of data with MCAD systems.

Kicad:
The best feature of Kicad is that it is open source. So new features can be added daily. Many intelligent designers are contributing to the software, and it is increasing its functionality day by day. The other advantage is its easy user interface. Its first view is so user-friendly that it helps the user in maintaining the flow. Moreover, it can be run on Windows and Linux.

EasyEda

EasyEda is the best designing tool which is both web and cloud base. It is zero-install integrating schematic capture and PCB layout can be designed in a seamless browser environment.

Allegro

Allegro is the most reputed software available in the market and is commonly used by large companies that make motherboards. It was launched by Cadence. This software has features that help in designing large motherboards. That’s the reason this software holds considerable market shares for computer design software.

WG

WG mentor introduced WG in 2005 and it was windows based. As the layout of the software should be great to manage the PCB design. So according to layout WG is the king of all software as it manages the layout most professionally. It is also recommended by many PCB designers.

Fritzing

Fritzing is also open-source software. It is designed to develop CAD software with the help of hardware design. As a hobby CAD helps designers and artists quickly move from design to prototype.

PADS

PADS Layout, PADS Logic, and PADS router are also included in the simple PADS software. It is the best for CAD layout. Its easy-to-use interface makes it the best choice for EDA.

ORCAD

Simply operation functions and strong stimulation make the OrCAD best for EDA development. OrCAD was developed in the 1980s and since then it is improved. It is recommended by electric designers because of its easy functionality.

Protel

Protel is also known as Altium and has the same functionality as we have discussed in Altium. It was introduced in the late 80s and since then it is ranked among highly used software for EDA designs. It is recommended because it has experience dealing with almost every design of PCB. It is released with its new features and leading the market in amazing manners.

So these are the latest software in the PCB design industry. Should you have any questions related to your design and or pcb assembly services, feel free to email us at sales@pnconline.com

Metal Core PCB Board

Metal Core PCB Board

As the electronic industry grows, LED equipment is also becoming more available. And wherever the LED comes, you will see the metal core printed circuit board as basic material. The metal core printed circuit boards are doing well in the automobile and lighting industries, and you can see the results as well. We are getting more efficient lights in the form of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). By efficiency we mean the product is providing better functionality for the possible longest time as well as the cost is also relatively lower than in the past. Now have a look at the lighting sector and LEDs. They are five times less costly than any other light and also provide the best efficiency. But if we see the core functionality of how LED is working then you will notice that it is heat is made from a very small part of the input of electrical power and other electrical devices are also involved. It may sound difficult to concede all the efficiency and get a hundred percent result as the heat is dissipated and thermal loss is happening.

Moreover, it is also difficult to get complete efficiency from the LED light functionality. To overcome this problem and in order to get the best outcome, a solution was proposed. This solution forced the designer to use metal core printed circuit boards in the design of light-emitting diodes. Metalcore printed circuit boards have improved the electronic industry by decreasing the loss of thermal power. Moreover, the main role of the metal core printed circuit board is in the thermal sector which we will discuss further. Now let us understand what metal core printed circuit boards are.

What is a metal core PCB?

As a clear form name, a metal core printed circuit board has the metal in its base material, and this base is used when we need to spread heat on the bread. A metal core printed circuit board is also named thermal PCB or metal-backed circuit board because it deals with the thermal power of the circuit board. The metal base material is used to oppose the typical FR4 printed circuit boards. And the metal core helps redirect heat away from the components which maintain the heat and temperature of the board.

The metal core PCB is designed with a particular standard thickness depending upon the need of the circuit board. The metal used to cover the side of the printed circuit board is usually made of copper and aluminum. Moreover, a circuit board may have metal in the reference of the metal core in the back and in the middle of the board. During the operations done in the circuit board, a large amount of heat is built up in the circuit board that needs to resolve in order to save the other fragile components of the board. As mentioned before, the metal core helps the board in maintaining a way that redirects heat away from the components. These components are usually the heat sink backing areas and metalcore areas. CEM3 and FR4 are alternated by the metal core in the metal core printed circuit board (MCPCB). So, we can say that metal core printed circuit boards are designed for thermal management that’s why they are also known as thermally printed circuit boards.

Structure and thickness of metalcore PCB material:

There are different metals available for the metal core choice. Mostly used are copper aluminum and a mixture of some special alloys. But as a matter of fact, aluminum metal core is the widely used metal in thermally printed circuit boards. You may find a request for some other metals such as brass and steel, but these metals are not recommended by experts as they are not the best alternative to copper and aluminum.

The thickness of the metal is kept enough that it can dissipate the heat well. The most common thickness that is recommended for the metal is from 30 mils to 125 mils. The copper metal thickness can range from 1 oz to 10 oz. it needs to be considered that metalcore or metal-backed is the thickest material of the circuit board. It is recommended to use 1mm, 1.5mm, and 3mm metal plates. We know that hardware needs to be mounted on the metal plate. Moreover, the circuit needed to maintain its flat structure and rigidity. That way the metal plate should be thickest enough that it provides the above-mentioned characteristics.

In most cases, aluminum is preferred over other metals because of its special characteristic. As you may already know, surface mount technology is used in aluminum. Aluminum plays well with the heat dissipation in the circuit and deals with it effectively. It is cost-effective and reduces the size of the product which is also a good approach. Aluminum prolongs for a lifetime, and it also helps in reducing the temperature of the operating time and provides the reliability of the product by improving the density power. If circuits need to be mechanically endured that aluminum metal core is a way to go.

Benefits of metal core PCB:

There are several benefits of the metal core printed circuit boards other than better capacitive coupling, higher power density, and higher electromagnetic shielding. This can be further improved by using thermal vias. Following mentioned are additional benefits of the thermally printed circuit boards:
Heat dissipation: the heat dissipation in the metal core pc board is very good. Heat efficiency would be removed from all the integrated circuits in the metal core printed circuit boards.
Thermal dissipation: higher thermal conductivity can only be achieved by the thermally printed circuit board. It keeps the heat away from the circuit as much as possible, so the circuit damage is reduced. High-density circuits are being managed by high powers in the metal core PCB. the aluminum substrate is the best choice used for this purpose.

Strength and stability: better strength and stability can only be achieved by metal core printed circuit boards. Heat dissipation is concerned with the development of LEDs. As the LEDs are directly mounted over the surface of the printed circuit boards that’s why stability and reliability are required by the circuit directly.

Applications of metal core PCB:

Metal core printed circuit boards are designed for applications that needed high functionality in the early 1960s. In the present age, it is the most widely used technology in the printed circuit board industry. The metal core PCB is selected because almost every device needs to reduce the temperature of the operating system. Moreover, thermal conductivity is achieved by the dielectric material used in metal core PC Board Fabrication.

What in the metal core printed circuit board is transferred quickly because of the insulating material and the reduced thickness of the metal plate? It is a great alternative to the FR4 as the thermal value provided by metal core PCB is nearly 2W/MK which is much higher than standard F4 printed circuit boards. As long as the dielectric layer is thin, the results would be the best in the metal core PCB. The path of the heat dissipation can be kept as low as possible which is more conductive if we see it from a thermal point of view as compared to the dielectric. So, there is a vast list of applications in which metal core printed circuit boards are being used. Some of them are mentioned below:
• Automobiles and heavy machinery
• Light-emitting diode (LEDs) and system automotive applications
• Photovoltaic
• Lighting streetlights and in the street safety applications
• Telecommunications
• Power supplies, power converters,
• Industrial and high voltage regulators
• Backlight unit applications
• Hybrid application
• Electric motor control application

As metal core printed circuit boards are providing efficiency and functionality so they’re taking a buzz in the electrical industry. It is being said that metal core PCBs are going to develop much more than at present. Despite their present usage in the market, experts have a common suggestion that metal core printed circuit boards can be a good choice for many other electrical equipment.

PNCONLINE is providing top-notch PCB solutions for your requirements. Just write us at sales@pnconline.com to get your Board design and SMT assembly done.

PCB fabrication using green Soldermask

PCB fabrication using green Soldermask?

How to use green Soldermask in pcb fabrication.

As we know that printed circuit boards are the building blocks of electronic devices. It is not wrong if we say that the electronic industry is relying on the quality of printed circuit boards in order to provide better functionality and performance. Now let us move forward with the fact that the printed circuit board is something we need to understand first if we are talking about electronics. Maybe you have seen one in your computer or other commonly used gadgets. What color came to mind? Let me guess! Is it a green board we usually see on our computers? Yes! Printed circuit boards are usually designed in this color. Although there are many other colors available, a vast majority of circuits are designed in green color.

There are a number of reasons for choosing green and we will discuss it further.
But before that let us make one thing clear. The green color of the PC board doesn’t mean that it is green all the way through. It is the outer part that is visible. And that other part is the solder mask of the circuit. So now we have another point. If you want to understand the color philosophy of the circuit, you need to understand what solder masking is. And why it is needed in the circuit.

In the manufacturing process of printed circuit boards, the copper circuitry is etched on the glass fiber interior. This circuitry helps the circuit in avoiding short circuits and soldering errors. The hue of the solder mask is used to protect that copper circuitry and it is the reason that the printed circuit board looks green. But the green color can be modified according to the need and to differentiate multiple printed circuit boards. For example, there is variation in the circuitry of colors provided by design companies. Black, blue, green, and red is provided as standard and commercial color for the solder masking. The electrical traces inside the board are shielded from contamination and moisture with the help of the solder mask.

Moreover, it helps in regulating the process of molten solder flux. There is a plain drab and yellow core of the conventional FR-4 circuits. But there is a variation for the solder masking. We have a number of colors available for solder masking such as white, black, blue, red, and yellow and usually decided during the PCB design portion of the job. Moreover, it is interesting to know that many uncommon colors are also in the hue list such as purple, orange, smooth, red, etc. similarly most combined colors are also available as an extravagant for the boards. So now when we have known that the number of choices is available then the question is even more strongly that why green? Or you can simply say why green is preferred when we have other choices too.

Now we are going to see the reasons why green is the most commonly used color for the solder masking of the printed circuit boards. There are a number of reasons, and we will see the important ones.

Reasons for the green color of PCB

In the early era of technical constraints, humans were controlling the quality of the circuit manually by verifying the board. So, many factors explain the green color of the PCB. As we have discussed before the green color means only the exterior of the printed circuit board. This does not mean that the inner PCB would also be of the same color. The exterior sheet is solder masking.

There are a number of factors that affect the copper traces present inside the circuit board such as oxidation, humidity, contamination, and FOD. The solder mask is the role that reduces the chance of these effects on the circuit board. Now let’s see the reasons for overlying the green sheet over the exterior sheet of the printed circuit board.

Visually relieve color:

Colors may relieve you or exhaust you depending upon their tendency to affect your sight. It may exhaust your min dot work on tiny circuits. But it is proved by psychologists and neurologists that the spectrum of green color has a relieving and smoothie impact on your body and mind. The green color may help in relieving tiredness and fatigue. Squinting at the tiny circuit is difficult but green wavelength has relaxing effects on the body, so it is easy to work on this layer.

Moreover, it is medically proved that the human eyes and cones are most sensitive to the green color. It is easy to distinguish green color as the eyes are robust to green color. Therefore, the traces, empty areas, silkscreens, electrodes, pads, and printings have greater contrast especially during the pcb assembly process. It is easy to detect the flaws in the outer layer if one looks simply at the outer layer. This is easy because of the color contrast used in the outer layer. If you compare the green color solder mask with others such as white, black, red. You will notice that it is easy to distinguish spots in the green color because of high contrasts. Although there are a number of techniques that are being used for spot detection such as flying probe technique and automatic optical inspection. These techniques are highly effective in spotting errors. But the technical reason for using green color remains the same.

Physical superiority of green color:

R&D is preferring green color for making high-quality solder mask oils because of the typical convention of using green hues. The functionality of the resin is impacted in the duration and the actual environment by organic chemical pigmentation. When the demand is reaching the limitation then there is no restriction for choosing a pink board. But the fact is, no other color in the aesthetic palette possesses the qualities same as green color. Moreover, the solder mask dams of 0.1mm can only be produced reliably by commercial green color. On the other hand, 0.12mm can be achieved by red, blue and yellow.

Additionally white and black can produce 0.15mm dams. Solder mask dams play an important role in fine pitch components and integrated circuits. Both ICs and fine pitch components are essential in shielding solder masks from forming.
It is also interesting to know that chlorine is the basis of the green color in the green solder oil. Halogens are made in PCB substrate when chlorine is combined with bromine. Halogens have a severe impact on health and also affect the environment if disposed of inappropriately. But you can also go for halogen-free solder masks as they are also available in the market. But you have to switch to some other color for a halogen-free solder mask.

Cost:

Silkscreen techniques are used when we need to apply solder masking. Across the screen mesh, a large glob of oil is dragged. There is a circuit board underneath which is sent for the curing and another board is pulled under the solder mesh. But there is a pause if you want to apply another color. Because for this purpose you need to wash the silkscreen in order to remove excess oil from the solder mask and then you can apply a new color. Moreover, you need a silkscreen station for each color.

The cost of the circuit board would be affected if you are changing color, increasing the thickness of the board, using multiple pictures, and increasing the number of possible combinations. The wastage of material would also be increased in this way. If the industry is not refusing to take your circuit board, even then you are paying more than your budget in this case which is of course not a good choice. But you can save your cost if you are going for the commercial green colors and their features. Moreover, you should also keep in mind that making a new solder mask that is visually appealing, cures well, applies, and adheres well and a good insulator is not an easy process at all. For your special request such as for matte color, you need to pay an extra amount.

So, there are a number of choices available for you to consider in the case of the colors of the printed circuit board. Every color has its pros and cons. Commonly green is preferred because of its efficiency over other colors but you can choose as per your need.

PNC is the market leader in providing cost-effective pcb assembly services. Just email us at sales@pnconline.com to get your query sorted.

10 Most Commonly Used Components in PCB Assembly

10 Most Commonly Used Components in PCB Assembly

How many times in a day do you generally catch yourself using an electronic gadget? Maybe a hundred times like right now. Although we are living with these electronic gadgets, understanding the mystery behind the electronics is still a mystery that needs to be resolved. It is not that difficult to understand the basic functionality and structure of every electronic device.

The reason is almost every electronic device tends to have some similar basic elements in its infrastructure. But still, it seems difficult to understand the working of the electronic device because nothing is happening in front of the eyes visually. Despite all of the facts, it is still interesting to read and understand about electronics. Moreover, it is not unthinkable to start building various electronics projects with a little background knowledge.

Now, let’s move to the very basic and essential part of the electronic industry, and let’s discuss its details so we can understand it well. And that basic thing is the printed circuit board (PCB).

What is a PCB?

Have you ever seen a building? What is it made of? Blocks of bricks, right? Similarly, an electronic device is made up of blocks known as printed circuit boards. The main advantage of a printed circuit board is that it helps in connecting the various components of electronic devices to build a cohesive system that offers power to different devices.

Just like a building designed as top floors, ground floors, rooms, balconies, printed circuit boards are designed to make a connection between different parts of the building (electronic device). And this connection then provides a fully functional electronic system that is capable of providing power to the other devices.

For the past couple of years, printed circuit boards have been used in various electronic devices to improve their functionality and quality. Moreover, these circuit boards make the device more reliable and easier to use. Depending on the type of device, a printed circuit board can be single layer to multiple layers. Generally, multilayer printed circuit boards are used for complex devices. Multiple layers circuit boards also have complex structures. Now let’s understand the structure of printed circuit boards.

What are the components of a PC board?

As we have discussed before, printed circuit boards are the building blocks of any electronic device. That’s why they are made up of different electronic components depending on the functionality of the device they will belong to. These components play a smooth role in the better functionality of the device. If any of the components fail, the entire system would fail and as result, the quality of the product would be affected. So effective functionality from each component is required for better working of the device.
Following are the commonly used components in a printed circuit board. The components mentioned below are just for beginners because as we have mentioned before, the multilayer circuit board will have a complex structure. Mostly used components in a printed circuit board are discussed below:

Capacitor:
As you already know that capacitors are used when we need to store electrical energy. Capacitors are essential for storing energy and you will find it on every printed circuit board. A range of electric charges is stored in a capacitor, and they act like storage space or a battery for the circuit board. The capacitor can gain and lose full charge that’s why they are used in the filter process. In this process, an electric device can use the backup source of energy if it loses the main source so that it does not lose the data. Capacitors release the energy when the device needs power. There are various types of capacitors available such as ceramic capacitors, polyester capacitors, and radial capacitors. The categorization of the capacitor is done on the basis of the insulating material used in them.

Resistors:
Resistors are commonly considered the first and essential part of any circuit board. They are used to control energy flow with the device. They are also referred to as the foundation of current control. Electric current is transmitted, and heat is dissipated in the resistors. They provide ease to the electric flow in the electronic devices. The level of resistance of the object can be defined by analyzing its resistance. The flow of electrical energy is resisted to form heat and what is then dissipated. There is a wide variety of resistors. The recommended resistors for the beginner are made of carbon film. The different colors in the body of the resistors show the resistance value.

Inductors:
Inductors are also used to store energy. So, we can say that they are similar to capacitors in nature. The energy is stored in the form of a magnetic field. This magnetic field is generated with the flow of electric current within the device. Moreover, inductors are also used when we need to block some signals. For example, interfering with the flow of signals from another device.

Transformers:
As clear from anime, transformers are used to transform energy from one power source to another. The induction process is used for this purpose. Similarly, transformers are used in printed circuit boards for transforming energy. The electrical is transferred from different circuits and then converted according to the need by increasing or decreasing the voltage. This function is somehow the same as the resistor as it regulates the current. But transforming current provides more electric isolation than a normal resistor. There are two windings (soft inductive circuits) and an iron core in the transformer. Both winding act as sender and receiver accordingly. The primary winding is the source of the energy, and the secondary winding is where the energy will go. The large voltage of energy is broken down into smaller parts by transforming so that the device or the equipment would not be overloaded. This helps in achieving the manageable flow of the electric charges in the circuit.

Diodes:
A Diode works in the same manner as the resistors. Electrical resistance is used to control the flow of the current. They assign a specific way for the high and low resistance. The hi8gh resistance is offered on one side and zero resistance on the other side. In this way, electrical current can be managed from flowing in the wrong direction. Because the wrong direction of the flow can also damage the functionality of the device and the equipment. The most common type of diode that you may have seen is light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Moreover, Zinner, high-speed switching diodes are also available and used for different purposes.

Transistors:
Transistors are used to amplify energy. Transistors are fundamental to all the new electronics. Their role is vital and sometimes they are referred to as the building blocks of the electronic device. A commonly used transistor known as a bipolar transistor can amplify current in three different directions as it has three areas and three pins. Bipolar transistors are further categorized into NPN and PNP types. Both types are made up of base, collector, and emitter. The switching and controlling of the electric current in the circuit are done by the transistors.

ICs (Integrated Circuits):
As clear from the name, integrated circuits are smaller circuits that are placed in the printed circuit board by minimizing the size. They are made up of silicon and then covered with plastic. The calculation is performed by using analog technology in modern integrated circuits. Integrated circuits are the source of energy for printed circuit boards. They provide power consistently that’s why they are also called the powerhouse of the PC Board. Transistors, resistors, and capacitors are collected in ICs as they can oscillate, amplify and process the energy within the circuit.

Batteries:
As it is clear from the name, batteries are used as a source of power in the PCBA. This is probably the most purchased component for the printed circuit board and is generally used by non-electrical people as well. The main function of the battery in the printed circuit board is to convert chemical energy into electrical energy so that power can be provided to different components of the board. An external circuit is used by them for the flow of electrons from one electrode to another.

Sensors:
Sensors are used when we need to analyze the change. They sense the change in the environment. The electrical signal is generated according to the change that has been detected. The signal is then sent to other components of the board.

Switches:
Switches are the power buttons of the printed circuit board and are used by non-engineers, the same as batteries. Switches are used for a variety of purposes but in pcb assembly, their function is to control the flow of the current. The flow can be managed by opening and closing the circuit. Push-button switches, toggle switches, and micro switches are commonly used types for the circuit board.

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