Tag Archives: circuit board assembly

PCB Design

Understanding the PCB Design for Half Adder

Multiple circuits’ combination involves various logic gates to create a multiplexer, encoder, de-multiplexer, and decoder. Such circuits have certain qualities, such as the circuit’s output more depends on the levels which are present at the input terminal.
Such a circuit lacks memory, and the previous input can’t influence the current input. The combined circuits consist of inputs and outputs.
A half adder is an electronic circuit that adds two binary numbers. So, two single binary numbers act as adders in this case. It can return the carry and the output, and the representation in practice involves the XOR and AND logic gates. There are two inputs in a half adder circuit, including A and B, generating the Sum and Carry. So, the number of outputs is also two in this case, like S and C.

Types of Combinational Circuits

  • Half adder
  • Full adder
  • Encoder
  • Subtractor
  • Decoder
  • Multiplexer
  • De-multiplexer

Understanding The Half Adder

Half adder is a digital circuit in PCB that provides an addition to binary numbers. In a half adder, a number’s weight is based on the binary digits’ position. The binary numbers are only from 0 to 1 of which 1 acts as the largest number and 0 as a smaller digit.
The two inputs of the half adder generate two outputs, so it is the simplest electronic circuit in the PCB. The inputs A and B are the bits where addition is required, whereas the Sum and Carry are the outputs abbreviated as S and C.

Half Adder Explained

The half adder circuit has two gates, including XOR and AND, and both have the same inputs. However, each gate generates the output, like XOR generates the Sum and AND generates Carry.

Half Adder Facts

According to engineers’ calculations if both ‘A and B’ inputs are 0, then both outputs like S and C would be 0.
However, if any of the input is 1, then the S or sum will be 1, but the C or carry will be 0.
However, if both A and B inputs are 1, then the S or sum will be 0, and the C or carry will be 1.
The half adder in a PCB performs additions according to the inputs applied.

2-Bit Half Adder

You can have the following combinations, such as

0+0=0

0+1=1

1+0=1

1+1=10

In this equation, 1+1=10, but it should be 2-bit output if rewritten, such as

0+0=00

0+1=01

1+0=01

1+1=10

In this case, the normal output is the Sum, whereas you should consider Carry as a carry-out. It is easy to implement a 1-bit adder through an XOR gate.
If you want to add two 8-bit, you can do it through the full adder because the half adder is suitable for the addition of one binary digit.
For two-binary digits, you will have to reduce the truth table. But, for a three-binary digit adder, the process of addition through a half adder should be done twice. Likewise, a four-digit adder involves another repetition of the half adder addition.
The entire process shows that it is easy to implement, but it takes lots of time.

Half-Adder IC

You can implement the half adder by using the high-speed CMOS digital and logic-based Printed Circuit Board.

Understanding Equation

It is easy to identify the equation of the half adder PCBs through two concepts, such as the Sum of Products, SOP, and the Products of sum, POS. The Boolean system of such PCBs helps find the relations between the inputs applied and the generated outputs.
Designers draw the K maps to find the equation and the maps are based on the facts. The k map has two equations, as it has two logic gates.

The K map for the Carry brings the below facts.
C=A.B
Whereas the K map for the Sum or XOR brings
S= A⊕ B

Applications of A Half-Adder PCB

The basic half adder has several applications, such:

  • It offers additions on the binary bits, and the logic unit and arithmetic lying in the computer need a half-adder circuit.
  • The half adder circuits when combined can produce full-adder circuits.
  • Such logic of half-adder circuits helps in designing calculators. So, the PCB in a calculator prefers a half-adder circuit.
  • The half-adder circuit also helps calculate tables and addresses.
  • Other than additions, the half-adder circuits can also handle different digital circuits’ applications. So, you can consider it a vital part of digital electronics.

Implementing The Half Adder Through An NOR Gate: NOR is a universal gate that helps implement a half adder.

Implementing The Half Adder Through NAND Gate

The NAND is also a universal gate that shows that you can design any type of PC Board through NAND gates. In this type, the carry output is produced through one NAND gate’s output being applied to the input which is another NAND gate. The second NAND gate is AND-gate generated output.

The Sum’s output equation can be produced through the output of the initial NAND, but with A and B inputs. In the end, the outputs generated by the NAND gates are again tried on the gate, producing the Sum’s output.
Hence, the standard adder in a digital PCB is easy to design through different logic gates. However, the addition of multiple bits is hard and it becomes a half-adder’s limitation.

Understanding A Full Adder PCB

The full-adder circuit includes three inputs, such as A, B, and C which add three numbers for input, generating the Carry and Sum. Whereas the number of the outputs is two. The main reason for half and full adders is the addition.
If Carry is produced through a previous addition, you can add it to another, unlike a half adder.

Difference Between A Half And Full Adder

A full adder involves two AND gates, two OR, and two EX-OR gates. Full adder is applicable in digital processors, and additions of several bits.
You have to combine two logic gates for PCB design with a half adder. But, a full adder consists of three gates.
Half adder is required in the electronic devices to calculate additions. But, the full adder is applied to the digital processors to add a long bit.
You can have a high output in full adders. Moreover, they involve a high speed and are very powerful in supplying voltage.
Full adder is also suitable for GPU, or Graphics Processing Unit.
How Are Half Adder And Full Adder Similar?
Half adder and full adder have one thing in common and that is the addition, as both are combinational circuits and don’t need a memory, like sequential circuits.

FAQs

What Is An Adder In PCB?

The digital circuits have different benefits, and if their main focus is to provide an additional, it is called Adder. It has two types, including the half adder and the full adder, depending on its inputs and output. However, the output is called Sum and Carry.
Adder is used in different kinds of processors other than just computers. They are constructed for several numerical elements, such as binary code decimal or excess-3.

Is There Any Limitation Of A Half Adder?

Yes, the half adder has some limitations. Like, it cannot add the carry bit produced from the previous or old bit. So, the half adders can’t perform additions in the case of multiple bits.

What Is A Full Adder In PCB?

A full adder includes three inputs, such as A, B, and C which add three numbers for input, generating the Carry and Sum. Whereas the number of the outputs is two.

Where To Use A Half-Adder Circuit?

PCB with a half adder is used in calculators and digital devices. It has a simple design and you can convert it to a half subtractor.

How Many Types Of Combinational Circuits Are There?

The types of combinational circuits include the half adder, full adder, encoder, subtractor, decoder, multiplexer, and de-multiplexer.

What Are The Uses Of A Half Adder?

A half adder offers additions on the binary bits, and the logic unit and arithmetic lying in the computer need a half-adder circuit. Moreover, half-adder circuits when combined can produce full-adder circuits. The logic in designing calculators. So, the PCB in a calculator prefers a half-adder circuit. The half-adder circuits can also handle different digital circuits’ applications.

Wrap Up

A half adder is an electronic circuit that adds two binary numbers. So, two single binary numbers act as adders in this case. It can return the carry and the output, and the representation in practice involves the XOR and AND logic gates. There are two inputs in a half adder circuit, including A and B, generating the Sum and Carry. So, the number of outputs is also two in this case, like S and C.
Would like to know more about pcb fabrication? Email us at sales@pnconline.com

Microwave Printed Circuit Board Concept

Microwave Printed Circuit BoardConcept

A microwave circuit refers to any electrical or electronic device which operates on microwaves or uses microwaves for its operation. Some examples include radar systems, satellite dishes, cell phone towers, and TV antennas among others. Such circuits are designed to operate at specific frequencies or bandwidths so that they do not interfere with each other.
A microwave is an electromagnetic wave of frequency between 1GHz and 30GHz. It falls under the band B, C, D, and E in IEEE standards. Microwaves occupy a large part of the entire RF spectrum as compared to other frequencies. The global demand for communication devices such as routers, DSL, and mobile phones has increased significantly due to technological advancements such as internet connectivity being provided by these devices and advancements in technology by small-sized electronic components that can operate at high frequencies. As a result, there is an increase in demand for microwave circuit design services.
Microwave PCBs have to meet certain requirements that have not changed even though the designs have.

Understanding The Concept

So, what is microwave PCB? Simply put, it’s a pc board that incorporates circuitry optimized for frequency bands in which microwave signals are most commonly used. As the boards are designed specifically for such frequencies, they offer superior performance over traditional boards in terms of both design and reliability. Besides, their smaller size and lower overall weight make them perfect for use in applications where space and transportation costs are at a premium.

Microwave Printed Circuit Board Concept
Microwave Printed Circuit Board Concept

Why Microwave Technology?

The microwave portion of telecommunications is used for point-to-point voice and data communications. You can also use it for two-way radio, cable television, and telegraphy in a limited range of frequencies. As it allows information transmission at high speeds over long distances, it is very common in military organizations. For these reasons and more, microwave technology plays an essential role in today’s technological world.

As such, it was important that an efficient way to transmit microwaves be developed, the result was a device called a microstrip line. In short, when combined with other components, microstrip lines are what allow microwaves to travel great distances while maintaining optimal signal strength.

A microstrip line consists of three main parts, including a metal foil, dielectric material, and a ground plane. Metal foil serves as an antenna, and the dielectric material acts as a waveguide. Whereas the ground plane provides electrical shielding. These three elements are placed on top of one another and bonded together using heat or pressure, which creates a single unit known as a structure.

What Are The Factors That We Need To Consider While Selecting The Right Board?

Choosing a board for microwave design is not an easy task. There are several factors that we need to consider such as frequency, applications, and modes of use. There are three main types of boards, including through-hole, single-sided, and multi-layer boards. It is also very important that you pick out a board that matches your frequency range.
For example, you need a board with wider spacing between conducting tracks at higher frequencies than low frequencies. So, make sure that you select the right one depending on your frequency range.
The next thing that you need to look into is your application or project needs. Depending upon your requirement, you can go ahead with either through-hole or SMD-style component placement methods.
The final step in choosing a microwave PCB will be deciding on the thickness of the copper traces before the Circuit board fabrication process. You will have to choose according to your project needs whether thin or thick copper traces would be best suited for your application. But, keep in mind that thicker copper traces provide better current carrying capacity but they are more expensive than thinner ones. So, again it all depends on what kind of budget you have set aside for your project.
Every board has its unique features, so do check out every detail before buying one. A well-known feature of these boards is their ability to withstand high temperatures without getting damaged. This makes them ideal for high-temperature environments like ovens, motors, etc.
Another advantage of using these boards is their small size which makes them easy to handle and transport from one place to another. They also come with different pin configurations like double row, single row, and even no pin configuration options. Some of them also offer the ground plane on both sides which helps in reducing noise levels due to capacitive coupling.
In addition to all these advantages, most of these boards are made up of epoxy glass material that provides insulation against electric fields and other environmental factors.

Installation of Components onto A Microwave PCB

Let’s now take a quick look at how we can install our components onto a microwave PCB. First of all, get yourself ready by wearing safety glasses and gloves so that you don’t end up hurting yourself during installation. Make sure that you have gathered all the tools required for installation beforehand.
Next, remove any existing solder mask and protective coating from the surface of your board. Make sure that there is no dirt or dust present on it as well. If necessary clean it thoroughly with acetone and then wipe dry with a lint-free cloth or paper towel.
After doing so you can proceed to install the components onto it just like any other circuit board out there. Remember to always start with your smallest components first and work your way up to larger ones. Before soldering it is recommended that you apply a thin coat of flux on all surfaces where you are going to be placing your components. Then apply a little bit of solder paste on each pad and lastly place your component in position and heat it with a soldering iron.
Make sure that you inspect for proper alignment of your parts and if needed apply extra flux or reposition it until everything looks just right. Once you are satisfied with your results, it’s time to apply a generous amount of solder over all your components. Once you have done so, wait for it to cool down and that’s it.

How Do I Choose My Microwave PCB Manufacturer?

Before you start shopping for a company to make your circuit boards, there are a few things you should know. Here’s a quick rundown of some key questions you should ask yourself as you’re shopping around, such as:
• Does your board require special materials?
• Do you need services outside of just PCB manufacturing?
• How many layers do you need?
• What sort of electrical isolation is needed between high-voltage and low-voltage areas on your board?
• How much space will you need for mounting components?
Once you have answers to these questions, it will be easier to find a vendor that can meet all of your needs. Of course, in order to get accurate information from vendors about their capabilities, you may need to provide them with more details about your project than what we’ve provided here. They must understand exactly what kind of design you’re working with so they can give you honest feedback about whether or not they’re able to work with it.

What Is Hybrid Microwave Circuit

A hybrid microwave involves a thin film or thick film technology to construct different microwave circuits using a medium that can transmit signals. The medium, in this case, is mostly sapphire, alumina porcelain, ceramics of high level, or quartz.
There are two types of hybrid microwave circuits, passive and active. Passive hybrid circuits consist of passive elements like resistors, capacitors, inductors, and filters. Whereas active hybrid circuits use active devices like transistors, diodes, etc.
Active hybrid circuits have better performance than passive ones, but their fabrication process is more complex than passive ones because they contain semiconductor elements, unlike passive elements. Thus it is easier to fabricate passive hybrid circuits than active ones.
There are various factors affecting the microwave circuit design such as size, power consumption, cost of materials used, and the operating temperature. These factors must be considered while designing a microwave circuit.
Understanding the Lumped Componentization of a Microwave Circuit
A lumped component model is one of several techniques used to analyze and design high-frequency microwave circuits. It was originally developed for analysis and design in communication systems. It is characterized by using lumped elements (e.g., resistors, capacitors, inductors) instead of transmission lines or other forms of circuit elements whose behavior is dominated by distributed parameters like permittivity and permeability.
In addition to being useful for analysis, lumped element models are also useful for conceptual designs because they make it easier to visualize components and their interconnections. The concept of lumped element models is very similar to that of ideal transformers used in a single-sideband modulation. In this model, an ideal transformer represents an actual transformer with losses and non-ideal characteristics asleakage reactanceare replaced by zero values.
The equivalent circuit consists of an impedance connected between port 1 and the ground, plus a series capacitor representing the leakage reactance and shunt conductance. This technique is often referred to as lumped parameter modeling. Other examples include bridge networks used in an RF filter design and the current source inverters used in active filters.
Would like to know more about the Microwave PCB conceptor printed circuit board assembly? Email us at sales@pnconline.com