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Blind and Buried Vias in PCB Board Technology

Blind and Buried Vias in PC Board Technology

PCBs are used to enhance a circuit’s function and stability. There are different vias in a PCB, PC Board, including the blind and buried via. We need to connect different layers in the PCB through a specific via, depending on its design. In general, vias are holes finished in copper, and their position depends on if the PCB is double-sided, or multi-layered.

Here, we will explore the blind and buried via, their benefits, construction, and guidelines to implement them. Before we go into details, you must know the meaning of via, and its role in the PCB.

Understanding Vias

A copper-finished hole in the PCB is known as via, and it joins both layers of a two-sided PCB. The standard via is a hole that starts from one layer and goes up to the second layer in a double-layer board, and it is also known as a through-hole via. A through via is not ideal for a high-density PCB because it takes more space, affecting the board thickness or density.

So, PCB designers prefer a blind or buried via for the multi-layered or HDI boards.

What Is A Blind Via

In blind via, the hole connects the outer layer of the PCB to its inner layer. The outer layer, in this case, can be either top or the bottom layer. It is applied to the HDI or high-density interconnection boards. Blind via enhances the PCB density through the closed placement of its components.

What Is A Buried Via?

The buried via is a hole that connects two inner layers of a PCB board. The name buried is because the hole is buried in between both upper and lower layers. Besides, you can drill it in many layers of a multi-density PCB. A buried via is also used in the HDI PCBs. There are also other types of PCB vias that we will discuss in the end.

Manufacturing Of Via

There are two ways to make a PCB via like the hole is drilled either before adding various layers to the circuit board, or after making all layers. The manufacturer drills all vias and then finishes them in copper.

• You must take care of the drill depth while making the buried and blind vias, because an extra deep hole can distort signals, reducing their speed.
• On the other hand, a very shallow hole can break a connection, affecting the PCB performance. Even, the PCB can stop working due to poor drilling, so give it to expert hands.
• The manufacturer should also know all the dos and don’ts of pcb assembly. So, always hire a good designer and manufacturer for your custom PCB.

How To Fill Or Cover Vias

Via cover must prevent the entrapment of chemicals or other substances within the holes, which can eventually cause defects to the printed circuit board. Vias are filled with conductive or non-conductive paste. Blind vias and via-in-pads are filled with well-designed electroplating.
If you are looking to move heat from one side of the printed circuit board to the other, you will likely opt for a conductive fill.
Vias must be sealed or covered by copper plating. The combination of the sequential build-up of technology and the mechanical processes can disturb the buried via plating, resulting in problems with the board. To prevent this problem, the vias are filled with resin before being plated.
A via-in-pad must be plated because you are putting in a component connection, and you can’t have a recessed hole.
Now, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of blind and buried vias.

Advantages That You Get From Blind And Buried Vias

1. The blind and buried vias help design a PCB faster than other methods.
2. In the case of typical boards, these vias are compatible with the component density, and you don’t need to add more layers to your board.
3. Both blind and buried vias enhance the function of the HDI boards, providing high power. They are ideal for BGA components of precise pitch, as they provide a wide surface area, unlike the through-hole vias.
4. They are the best for a multilayered PCB, like a board with a minimum of 4 layers. These vias help where a through-plated via fails to meet the PCB performance requirements. These holes don’t have to face the density limitations of a typical PCB design.
5. They enhance the board density without a need to increase the PCB size. So, you can use the blind and buried vias for high-end PCB products. Such types of vias are ideal for consumer products or electronics.


The blind and buried vias increase the overall cost of the PCB because of extra manufacturing work. So, they are costly than typical PCBs, because you need more time for hole drilling and other processes. Keep this factor in your mind before ordering your HDI circuit board with blind and buried holes.

Tips To Consider For Selecting The Right PCB Via

Both users and PCB designers should work together to bring the best product. The buyer should tell the designer about his requirements, like PCB components, size, type of via, number of connectors, etc.

Select A Suitable Type Of Via

You must choose the right type of via for a PCB. Like, if the board has several layers, go for blind and buried via. But, choose a through-hole via for a one-sided PCB. There are also other types of vias and the designer must know where to fit them.
Compatible Via Size And Tolerance

Generally, the PCB thickness determines the size of via it should have. A standard via has a 10 mil size that becomes 7 mils after copper plating. Whereas in micro via, you can have a 4 mil via, be it mechanically or laser drilled. Moreover, the hole or via should have enough size or tolerance to hold the connectors.

Compatible Technology

The blind and buried vias don’t go well on all boards. So, the PCB supplier must choose a stack up compatible with via technology, and the same goes to other via types.

Follow The IPC Guidelines

The designers should always consider the IPC guidelines in terms of technology. Like, they should focus on the right distance between vias in case of several layers. Every PCB supplier should have the IPC design guidelines to avoid any mistakes. The guidelines regarding Class 2, Class 3, Class 3DS are essential to consider as they are not similar.

Consider The Angular Ring Requirements

After drilling each layer’s pad, comes the stage of the annular ring and its requirements should be according to Class 2 and 3. The driller should know how to deal with tolerances while drilling through PCB.

The annular ring helps to have enough surface in the internal layers, maintaining the copper connection on a specific layer before a through-hole plating. Like, you should maintain the electrical connections keeping in mind the material and drill tolerances,

Micro Via Plating

When it comes to a micro via, you should give the right requirements to your PCB supplier. Like, how do fill via; through electrical or thermal epoxy and then copper plate it? This step helps to have a well-finished PCB, preventing vias from external elements.

The Drill File
Each connection has a via or hole that must be according to the drill file. In a blind via, the drill diameter and hole’s depth ratio should be 1:1; however, it can be more depending on the PCB thickness.
In the case of buried via, this ratio should be 1:12, but it can be more depending on the HDI PCB.

Other via Types

We have discussed the blind, buried, and through-hole vias, but there are also types of vias used for PCB design, so let’s study them.
Micro via: A micro via is smaller than all other vias. Even a naked eye can’t see it as it’s so small, so you need a microscope. They are used for a high-density PCB to provide more routing area.
A micro via reduces the issues, such as parasitic resistance that is common in the HDI boards. But, the micro via involves more time to drill and care, so the PCB designers prefer teardrops.
Stacked via: The stacked vias are also laminated and they are either buried or blind vias. A stacked via connects different layers on PCB. They appear to be on top of each other, so they are known as stacked vias.
Staggered via: the staggered vias are also used for multilayered PCBs, but they don’t overlap so we call them staggered. This via has a complex design but it involves less cost compared to the stacked via.
Skip via: The skip via is a hole that passes through different PCB layers but it does not have any electrical connection with specific layers. A skip via is either blind, buried, or overlapping.
Via-in-pad: It is common via used for large PCB pads, such as BGA or MOSFET. Such vias help to have components’ thermal dissipation. However, the designer knows if via in pad is suitable or not because it may affect soldering.
Whether it’s blind, buried, or some other via, you must hire an experienced PCB manufacturing company. The manufacturer should be professional and know the drilling techniques to make these vias.

PNC is providing top-notch PCB design and assembling services at affordable rates. Interested to know more about PCB Vias, write us at sales@pnconline.com

Metal Core PCB Board

Metal Core PCB Board

As the electronic industry grows, LED equipment is also becoming more available. And wherever the LED comes, you will see the metal core printed circuit board as basic material. The metal core printed circuit boards are doing well in the automobile and lighting industries, and you can see the results as well. We are getting more efficient lights in the form of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). By efficiency we mean the product is providing better functionality for the possible longest time as well as the cost is also relatively lower than in the past. Now have a look at the lighting sector and LEDs. They are five times less costly than any other light and also provide the best efficiency. But if we see the core functionality of how LED is working then you will notice that it is heat is made from a very small part of the input of electrical power and other electrical devices are also involved. It may sound difficult to concede all the efficiency and get a hundred percent result as the heat is dissipated and thermal loss is happening.

Moreover, it is also difficult to get complete efficiency from the LED light functionality. To overcome this problem and in order to get the best outcome, a solution was proposed. This solution forced the designer to use metal core printed circuit boards in the design of light-emitting diodes. Metalcore printed circuit boards have improved the electronic industry by decreasing the loss of thermal power. Moreover, the main role of the metal core printed circuit board is in the thermal sector which we will discuss further. Now let us understand what metal core printed circuit boards are.

What is a metal core PCB?

As a clear form name, a metal core printed circuit board has the metal in its base material, and this base is used when we need to spread heat on the bread. A metal core printed circuit board is also named thermal PCB or metal-backed circuit board because it deals with the thermal power of the circuit board. The metal base material is used to oppose the typical FR4 printed circuit boards. And the metal core helps redirect heat away from the components which maintain the heat and temperature of the board.

The metal core PCB is designed with a particular standard thickness depending upon the need of the circuit board. The metal used to cover the side of the printed circuit board is usually made of copper and aluminum. Moreover, a circuit board may have metal in the reference of the metal core in the back and in the middle of the board. During the operations done in the circuit board, a large amount of heat is built up in the circuit board that needs to resolve in order to save the other fragile components of the board. As mentioned before, the metal core helps the board in maintaining a way that redirects heat away from the components. These components are usually the heat sink backing areas and metalcore areas. CEM3 and FR4 are alternated by the metal core in the metal core printed circuit board (MCPCB). So, we can say that metal core printed circuit boards are designed for thermal management that’s why they are also known as thermally printed circuit boards.

Structure and thickness of metalcore PCB material:

There are different metals available for the metal core choice. Mostly used are copper aluminum and a mixture of some special alloys. But as a matter of fact, aluminum metal core is the widely used metal in thermally printed circuit boards. You may find a request for some other metals such as brass and steel, but these metals are not recommended by experts as they are not the best alternative to copper and aluminum.

The thickness of the metal is kept enough that it can dissipate the heat well. The most common thickness that is recommended for the metal is from 30 mils to 125 mils. The copper metal thickness can range from 1 oz to 10 oz. it needs to be considered that metalcore or metal-backed is the thickest material of the circuit board. It is recommended to use 1mm, 1.5mm, and 3mm metal plates. We know that hardware needs to be mounted on the metal plate. Moreover, the circuit needed to maintain its flat structure and rigidity. That way the metal plate should be thickest enough that it provides the above-mentioned characteristics.

In most cases, aluminum is preferred over other metals because of its special characteristic. As you may already know, surface mount technology is used in aluminum. Aluminum plays well with the heat dissipation in the circuit and deals with it effectively. It is cost-effective and reduces the size of the product which is also a good approach. Aluminum prolongs for a lifetime, and it also helps in reducing the temperature of the operating time and provides the reliability of the product by improving the density power. If circuits need to be mechanically endured that aluminum metal core is a way to go.

Benefits of metal core PCB:

There are several benefits of the metal core printed circuit boards other than better capacitive coupling, higher power density, and higher electromagnetic shielding. This can be further improved by using thermal vias. Following mentioned are additional benefits of the thermally printed circuit boards:
Heat dissipation: the heat dissipation in the metal core pc board is very good. Heat efficiency would be removed from all the integrated circuits in the metal core printed circuit boards.
Thermal dissipation: higher thermal conductivity can only be achieved by the thermally printed circuit board. It keeps the heat away from the circuit as much as possible, so the circuit damage is reduced. High-density circuits are being managed by high powers in the metal core PCB. the aluminum substrate is the best choice used for this purpose.

Strength and stability: better strength and stability can only be achieved by metal core printed circuit boards. Heat dissipation is concerned with the development of LEDs. As the LEDs are directly mounted over the surface of the printed circuit boards that’s why stability and reliability are required by the circuit directly.

Applications of metal core PCB:

Metal core printed circuit boards are designed for applications that needed high functionality in the early 1960s. In the present age, it is the most widely used technology in the printed circuit board industry. The metal core PCB is selected because almost every device needs to reduce the temperature of the operating system. Moreover, thermal conductivity is achieved by the dielectric material used in metal core PC Board Fabrication.

What in the metal core printed circuit board is transferred quickly because of the insulating material and the reduced thickness of the metal plate? It is a great alternative to the FR4 as the thermal value provided by metal core PCB is nearly 2W/MK which is much higher than standard F4 printed circuit boards. As long as the dielectric layer is thin, the results would be the best in the metal core PCB. The path of the heat dissipation can be kept as low as possible which is more conductive if we see it from a thermal point of view as compared to the dielectric. So, there is a vast list of applications in which metal core printed circuit boards are being used. Some of them are mentioned below:
• Automobiles and heavy machinery
• Light-emitting diode (LEDs) and system automotive applications
• Photovoltaic
• Lighting streetlights and in the street safety applications
• Telecommunications
• Power supplies, power converters,
• Industrial and high voltage regulators
• Backlight unit applications
• Hybrid application
• Electric motor control application

As metal core printed circuit boards are providing efficiency and functionality so they’re taking a buzz in the electrical industry. It is being said that metal core PCBs are going to develop much more than at present. Despite their present usage in the market, experts have a common suggestion that metal core printed circuit boards can be a good choice for many other electrical equipment.

PNCONLINE is providing top-notch PCB solutions for your requirements. Just write us at sales@pnconline.com to get your Board design and SMT assembly done.

10 Most Commonly Used Components in PCB Assembly

10 Most Commonly Used Components in PCB Assembly

How many times in a day do you generally catch yourself using an electronic gadget? Maybe a hundred times like right now. Although we are living with these electronic gadgets, understanding the mystery behind the electronics is still a mystery that needs to be resolved. It is not that difficult to understand the basic functionality and structure of every electronic device.

The reason is almost every electronic device tends to have some similar basic elements in its infrastructure. But still, it seems difficult to understand the working of the electronic device because nothing is happening in front of the eyes visually. Despite all of the facts, it is still interesting to read and understand about electronics. Moreover, it is not unthinkable to start building various electronics projects with a little background knowledge.

Now, let’s move to the very basic and essential part of the electronic industry, and let’s discuss its details so we can understand it well. And that basic thing is the printed circuit board (PCB).

What is a PCB?

Have you ever seen a building? What is it made of? Blocks of bricks, right? Similarly, an electronic device is made up of blocks known as printed circuit boards. The main advantage of a printed circuit board is that it helps in connecting the various components of electronic devices to build a cohesive system that offers power to different devices.

Just like a building designed as top floors, ground floors, rooms, balconies, printed circuit boards are designed to make a connection between different parts of the building (electronic device). And this connection then provides a fully functional electronic system that is capable of providing power to the other devices.

For the past couple of years, printed circuit boards have been used in various electronic devices to improve their functionality and quality. Moreover, these circuit boards make the device more reliable and easier to use. Depending on the type of device, a printed circuit board can be single layer to multiple layers. Generally, multilayer printed circuit boards are used for complex devices. Multiple layers circuit boards also have complex structures. Now let’s understand the structure of printed circuit boards.

What are the components of a PC board?

As we have discussed before, printed circuit boards are the building blocks of any electronic device. That’s why they are made up of different electronic components depending on the functionality of the device they will belong to. These components play a smooth role in the better functionality of the device. If any of the components fail, the entire system would fail and as result, the quality of the product would be affected. So effective functionality from each component is required for better working of the device.
Following are the commonly used components in a printed circuit board. The components mentioned below are just for beginners because as we have mentioned before, the multilayer circuit board will have a complex structure. Mostly used components in a printed circuit board are discussed below:

As you already know that capacitors are used when we need to store electrical energy. Capacitors are essential for storing energy and you will find it on every printed circuit board. A range of electric charges is stored in a capacitor, and they act like storage space or a battery for the circuit board. The capacitor can gain and lose full charge that’s why they are used in the filter process. In this process, an electric device can use the backup source of energy if it loses the main source so that it does not lose the data. Capacitors release the energy when the device needs power. There are various types of capacitors available such as ceramic capacitors, polyester capacitors, and radial capacitors. The categorization of the capacitor is done on the basis of the insulating material used in them.

Resistors are commonly considered the first and essential part of any circuit board. They are used to control energy flow with the device. They are also referred to as the foundation of current control. Electric current is transmitted, and heat is dissipated in the resistors. They provide ease to the electric flow in the electronic devices. The level of resistance of the object can be defined by analyzing its resistance. The flow of electrical energy is resisted to form heat and what is then dissipated. There is a wide variety of resistors. The recommended resistors for the beginner are made of carbon film. The different colors in the body of the resistors show the resistance value.

Inductors are also used to store energy. So, we can say that they are similar to capacitors in nature. The energy is stored in the form of a magnetic field. This magnetic field is generated with the flow of electric current within the device. Moreover, inductors are also used when we need to block some signals. For example, interfering with the flow of signals from another device.

As clear from anime, transformers are used to transform energy from one power source to another. The induction process is used for this purpose. Similarly, transformers are used in printed circuit boards for transforming energy. The electrical is transferred from different circuits and then converted according to the need by increasing or decreasing the voltage. This function is somehow the same as the resistor as it regulates the current. But transforming current provides more electric isolation than a normal resistor. There are two windings (soft inductive circuits) and an iron core in the transformer. Both winding act as sender and receiver accordingly. The primary winding is the source of the energy, and the secondary winding is where the energy will go. The large voltage of energy is broken down into smaller parts by transforming so that the device or the equipment would not be overloaded. This helps in achieving the manageable flow of the electric charges in the circuit.

A Diode works in the same manner as the resistors. Electrical resistance is used to control the flow of the current. They assign a specific way for the high and low resistance. The hi8gh resistance is offered on one side and zero resistance on the other side. In this way, electrical current can be managed from flowing in the wrong direction. Because the wrong direction of the flow can also damage the functionality of the device and the equipment. The most common type of diode that you may have seen is light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Moreover, Zinner, high-speed switching diodes are also available and used for different purposes.

Transistors are used to amplify energy. Transistors are fundamental to all the new electronics. Their role is vital and sometimes they are referred to as the building blocks of the electronic device. A commonly used transistor known as a bipolar transistor can amplify current in three different directions as it has three areas and three pins. Bipolar transistors are further categorized into NPN and PNP types. Both types are made up of base, collector, and emitter. The switching and controlling of the electric current in the circuit are done by the transistors.

ICs (Integrated Circuits):
As clear from the name, integrated circuits are smaller circuits that are placed in the printed circuit board by minimizing the size. They are made up of silicon and then covered with plastic. The calculation is performed by using analog technology in modern integrated circuits. Integrated circuits are the source of energy for printed circuit boards. They provide power consistently that’s why they are also called the powerhouse of the PC Board. Transistors, resistors, and capacitors are collected in ICs as they can oscillate, amplify and process the energy within the circuit.

As it is clear from the name, batteries are used as a source of power in the PCBA. This is probably the most purchased component for the printed circuit board and is generally used by non-electrical people as well. The main function of the battery in the printed circuit board is to convert chemical energy into electrical energy so that power can be provided to different components of the board. An external circuit is used by them for the flow of electrons from one electrode to another.

Sensors are used when we need to analyze the change. They sense the change in the environment. The electrical signal is generated according to the change that has been detected. The signal is then sent to other components of the board.

Switches are the power buttons of the printed circuit board and are used by non-engineers, the same as batteries. Switches are used for a variety of purposes but in pcb assembly, their function is to control the flow of the current. The flow can be managed by opening and closing the circuit. Push-button switches, toggle switches, and micro switches are commonly used types for the circuit board.

PNC is the leading brand in terms of providing a turnkey solution for all your PCB-related requirements. Interested in pcb assembly services? Just write us at sales@pnconline.com

Printed Circuit Board Signal Conditioning Process

Printed Circuit Board Signal Conditioning Process

The process of data acquisition is known as signal processing. This acquisition is done by an instrument which is known as the signal conditioner. There is a conversion of signals that happened in this process. The signal conditioner converts the signal from one form such as electrical or mechanical to another form. The input signal is converted into the output signal in the signal conditioning process. Now the question may arise why do we need to convert the input signal into an output signal? The simple answer is that the signal needs to be amplified.

This amplification helps the signal to be converted into a compatible and easy-to-read form. This form of signal helps in data acquisition and machine control. Analog signals are converted into digital signals but before that, correct preparation is made. In the signal conditioning process, we manipulate a signal in a way that it can be converted and further proceed for the next step. Mechanical and environmental measurements are made in many electronic acquisitions for the measure. These measurements are done with the angle of specific sensors such as temperature and vibrations. But these sensors cannot work accurately for the measurement of the signals if the signal conditioning is not compelled yet.

Certain signals tend to have a very low voltage level. For these types of signals, amplification is required before they can be digitized properly. The best example of these signals is thermocouple signals. Some of the other sensors such as accelerometer, strain gauges, and resistance temperature detector cannot work until the excitation to operate is not completed. All these technologies are the best example of signal conditioning.

Because of its importance, we can say that signal conditional can be considered as the fundamental block of modern data acquisitions taken in consideration during the PCB design step. Physical measurement is the end goal of the data acquisition system. The following basic components are achieved by the signal conditioning process:

• Analog to digital convertor
• Sensor
• Signal conditioning
• Computer with DAQ

Use Of signal conditioning:

As discussed before, the basic task of signal conditioning is the conversion of the signal. The signals are converted from the input form to the output form. Most commonly, the input signals are of the electric type. Now why the conversion is required. This conversion is needed when the conventional signals cannot process the actual signal easily and it needs to be converted so that interpretation can be done correctly.

Frequency, electric charge, AC voltage, electric current, DC voltage, and current are basic signals that are accepted by the signal conditioning process.

A data acquisition system cannot work until it is connected to several signals and a wide variety of sensors. The arranged process is happened for the signal converting. The analog signal is taken by the signal conditioner for better manipulation. Once the signal is manipulated, it is then sent to the analog to digital converter system. The analog to the digital converted system is the end resource and it helps in digitizing the signal so it can be used in further processing. The basic purpose of the signal conditioning business is the conversion from analog to digital signals.

The digital domain is achieved by this process and this domain is then represented, displayed, stored, and analyzed. Input can be measured from a sensor that is used to measure strain, temperature, resistance, and acceleration. Moreover, the input can also be achieved by relays, switches, encoders, and clocks. A huge number of varieties can be interpreted from signal conditioners, this variety of signals include the output type.

There are some basic functionalities of the signal conditioning process. We will see the functionalities later. First, we need to understand the process of signal conditioning after the Printed Circuit board Fabrication is done.

Process of signal conditioning:

Following are the steps that are included in the signal conditioning process. The detail of every step is given for better understanding.

Step 1: Adjustment of a signal according to noise ratio:
The signal is adjusted to the noise ratio with the help of amplification and attenuation. In the electronic dictionary, you can say that amplification and attenuation are two opposite subjects. The deterioration of analog signals happens because of the background noise in the transmission process.

There comes the term signal-to-noise ratio. This means the signal strength ratio to unwanted background interference. This ratio is then increased with the help of amplification by magnifying the voltage level of the input signal. For example, in amplification, a signal of 0-1mv is converted into 0-10v.

On the other hand, in the attenuation process, the input amplitude is decreased. This process is done so that the signal can be fit in the optimal range of the device digitizer.

Step 2: removal of voltage signal for the prevention of equipment from damage:
The filtration and isolation of the input signal are required by the signal conditioning process. This is done because the unwanted background noise that is unwanted needs to be removed. Moreover, the removal of voltage signals that are far beyond the in-line digitizer is also compulsory.

There is a considerable difference in filtering and isolating processes. The filtering is done when noise needs to be rejected from a predefined frequency range. We can say that the isolation process is somehow similar. But the difference is a protection step of data acquisition and control system form the from voltage spikes is done. These voltage spikes can damage the entire data acquisition system.

Step 3: using controlled current or voltage for excitation technique:
Transducers and their subtypes require the excitation process. The operation of an active sensor is done with the help of the external sensor. A few types of signals that require external power to proceed further are strain gauges, accelerometers, transmitters, resistors, thermistors, and RTDs.

Step 4: signal linearization
Sometimes a signal cannot exhibit a linear relationship to the actual measurement. These types of signals can also be produced by some sensor equipment. To overcome this problem, we need a linearization process. As clear from the name linearization is done to optimize this signal according to the actual measurement.

The voltage of the input signal is mapped with the corresponding value requirement by physical measurement. Linearization is a very common signal connection process. The most important use of linearization is in industrial temperature measurement.

Now you have understood the process of signal conditioning in depth. Above mentioned steps need to be followed step by step for better signal conversion. Now it is necessary to understand the basic function of signal conditioning. How it is done and what are the benefits of signal conditioning.

Let’s understand the functionality and the benefits of this process now.

Functions of signal conditioners:

As we have discussed before, the main functions of signal conditioners are filtering, isolation and amplification. If these steps are not done correctly then inefficiencies and inaccuracy can happen. These can lead to incorrect output, loss of data, and other problems. So, the question arises how you can avoid these problems?

Now how would you know which type of signal conditioning is best for you? Well, the type of input signal you are going to use for processing will decide this. The other factors that make an impact on the type of signal conditioning process are desired type of output, available power for isolation in the quality criteria of the signal.

Now let’s understand the basic PC BOARD functions such as accuracy, flexibility, and the isolation required by signal conditioning.


Accuracy is the main thing to be noticed in the signal conditioning process. There is a broad variety of accuracy along with signal conditioning. There is a direct relation of accuracy between the conditioner and the accuracy of the other equipment. For example, the sensor that is used to provide the signal. An extremely accurate signal conditioner cannot perform well if the sensor is used in the process is not precise and working correctly. So, in a nutshell, you can say that to get the highly correct and efficient output, every degree of accuracy should be the same in the signal conditioner and other parts of the system. Otherwise, the device and cost would be wasted with a high level of precision.


As clear from the name flexibility in the signal conditioner means processing with a number of signals. A wider range of signal types can be processed with the flexibility feature. It is often considered as an additional advantage. Many designers and manufacturers add this feature to the product just to increase its functionality and efficiency.

Because if the device is dealing with a wide range of signals, it is likely to be more precise and calibrated for sensors. The replacement and change of other important parts of the system can be done with the help of flexibility. This will not affect the other part of the system.


Isolation is used in the signal conditioning process at more than one point. As a clear from the name, this process isolates the components and encourages that there is no interconnection between electric and other parts of the devices. The isolation process is required because it will enhance the common quality of the system. Moreover, the signal that needs to be isolated would also be decided according to configuration.
Should you have any further questions regarding the Signal Conditioning Process, feel free to contact us at sales@pnconline.com

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PC BOARD Electronics Components Optimization

PC BOARD Electronics Components Optimization

Can you imagine yourself all dressed up, but you have no place to go? Well, that’s awkward because we all need to do something but for a reason. And that reason should be enough strong that could stop us not to distracted by other various factors. The same happens to the engineer in the circuit board design. Sometimes, an engineer would do a mistake. What’s that mistake? He would probably be all dressed up, but he would not pay attention to the end goal. Instead, he would get distracted by other external factors and end up with nothing. And as a result, he would have a body of the circuit without a soul. That’s sounds bad right? So, what is that one thing that an engineer can apply to avoid this type of situation?

A clear answer, keep an eye on designing and optimizing. Before you launch your electronic component or product, you need to pay attention to the reasonable amount of material used in it.The fact that is overlooked in the virtual designing of the circuit board is that the product would have a physical structure also. The virtual designing process may include the components and design that are not beneficial or may not be available anymore. The database of virtual designing usually includes these components, and an engineer can get some hiccups in their assembly and prototyping process. And if these critical and useful components remain in the PCB design till the end of the designing then many severe problems can also occur.

For example, a delay in production can happen and the client may be unhappy. But the good news is, all these problems can be reduced if you take some steps and make some efforts to optimize your electric component section. But before we discuss the tips and tricks that need to be taken for better optimization of electronic components, one should understand how component procurement takes place.

Component selection and procurement:

You can get ease and freedom to work if the electronic components are placed on the circuit board correctly at a low frequency. The difficulty may arise when final design and heat dissipation occurs. Well, it is easy to deal with low frequency. But in the case of high frequency, the slightest mistake and wrong positioning of electric components that may be valid electrically would end in compromising the overall functionality of the circuit board. So, in a nutshell, it is being said that positioning any electric component in the circuit board is a crucial task to perform. In the case of high frequency, the requirement is also high for good positioning of the components. This will help in optimizing the signal path and improving the circuit operation.

The best placement for the circuit board can only be obtained by following the strict theoretical rules and some powerful software that helps designers in creating a sophisticated circuit. The length of the critical path should be reduced typically. If all the electric components are placed in the right arrangement, then the overall functionality of the circuit board can also be increased. And the physical size would be reduced accordingly.

Component selection is one of the most significant tasks that happen in circuit design and in the lifecycle of product development that may affect printed circuit board assembly. Then, the other tasks are performed to check if the components are integrated, and the device is performing the required functionality or not. Each component is available for a certain period and a graph is made for clear understanding. The product would be available in variation. A new production would be distributed modestly and then it would go to the peak once established and then decline because it is replaced with new technologies.

Following are the few terms that need to be taken care of while optimizing an electronic circuit. Some of them are related to the positioning of the components and some explain the optimization of the signal in any electronic circuit. An engineer should take care of every step so that the outcome of the circuit can work efficiently and effectively.

Placement of components for heat dissipation:

The positioning of components and optimization of a circuit board is not that easy task to do. It is always demanding and delicate to perform. The general recommendation is that the number of elements such as resistor, inductor, capacitor, indicator, and others should be connected with an extremely short track and device connected very close together. This is beneficial when the circuit is operating at a high frequency.

The rule is compulsory to follow for better functionality but sometimes, minimizing the length of the circuit may result in several thermal problems, and uneven accumulation of heat can happen, and some other unexplainable faults can also damage the entire functionality of the circuit board. So, to avoid these types of consequences, it is recommended to use the thermal ducts and go for the parallel positioning of the components.

With the advancement in technology, some techniques rapidly suggest an optimal positioning for components and then a uniform distribution so heat flow can be maintained. This ends up with the excellent thermal performance of the entire Printed Circuit Board circuit.

Placement of high-frequency components:

It is difficult to handle a system if it exceeds the frequency of 1 MHZ. The positioning of capacitive and inductive electrical and electronic components is critical to manage. The components may act differently even if they are arranged and electrically converted. So, the performance of the circuit board would be compromised. The motion of the capacitor and inductance of just a few centimeters can change the game by changing the functionality of the circuit. For example, you must have seen the transistors and receivers on the radio. HF amplifiers and other equipment that work in the high frequency.

Their frequency can be changed accordingly, and they will catch signals from the set frequency. The signal may be spread in the surrounding leaving the circuit in the order of MHz the positioning of the circuit board can be compromised (positively or negatively) with a small variation in the wiring connection. The resistors are difficult to manage and should be done in the most attentive environment.

Genetic algorithms:

As artificial intelligence is covering many other aspects of technology successfully, it had its impact on the world of electronics also. Some techniques help in the implementation of genetic algorithms so that the positioned components can be optimized, and thermal degree can be evaluated in the duration of the operation.

The convection can be cooled by airflow if the genetic algorithms are present on the surface of the board. The thermal model of the circuit acts in two dimensions. So, the optimization of the circuit and position of this differently acting thermal criteria is handled by the algorithm genetic. And this would result in the optimization of electronic components and positioning of components on the circuit board in a three-dimensional way.

All this would be done with the help of genetic algorithms. But arranging and finding the right arrangement is not a piece of cake. There are hundreds and thousands of arrangements that can take place in the circuit. For this purpose, the software has to manage the million permutations and combinations to find the right arrangement. Once the right arrangement is found, it is implemented for the efficient functionality of the circuit board.

Optimizing electrical components selection:

The impact of the component positioning on a circuit board is often undervalued. But the truth is your component choice can affect the assembly of the circuit board in a significant manner. The right choice for component packages can reduce pc board steps in the circuit board either through-hole or surface mount devices. However, some specific steps need to be followed for the overall functionality and optimization of the electric circuit board.

Determine the quantity available in the designing process:

Checking the quantity of the component is important because it helps in manufacturing delays of the circuit in searching for alternatives that perform equally well to the components from alternative markets.

Choose reputable suppliers for components:

Your product quality is depending on the components you are going to use in the circuit. So, selecting reputable suppliers and distributors is equally important to manufacturing. It should be mentioned in the manufacturing procedure which suppliers you are going to deal with for your product components.

Components should have comparable replacements:

Choosing components with replacement can help in minimizing a lot of tasks. Such as requirement gathering and redesigning and redefinition in case of components contingency. The need to update can also be managed.

Maintain access to the current component of the lifecycle:

Having a quick view of the current data rate is important. As the process proceeds further, you will need to check if the particular component is doing great or not. Similarly, this choice is important so you can check if you want to go with the particular component or you should select any other alternative.

Investigate the component:

This step is important to ensure the quality of your component.

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