Tag Archives: PCB Design

Blind and Buried Vias in PCB Board Technology

Blind and Buried Vias in PC Board Technology

PCBs are used to enhance a circuit’s function and stability. There are different vias in a PCB, PC Board, including the blind and buried via. We need to connect different layers in the PCB through a specific via, depending on its design. In general, vias are holes finished in copper, and their position depends on if the PCB is double-sided, or multi-layered.

Here, we will explore the blind and buried via, their benefits, construction, and guidelines to implement them. Before we go into details, you must know the meaning of via, and its role in the PCB.

Understanding Vias

A copper-finished hole in the PCB is known as via, and it joins both layers of a two-sided PCB. The standard via is a hole that starts from one layer and goes up to the second layer in a double-layer board, and it is also known as a through-hole via. A through via is not ideal for a high-density PCB because it takes more space, affecting the board thickness or density.

So, PCB designers prefer a blind or buried via for the multi-layered or HDI boards.

What Is A Blind Via

In blind via, the hole connects the outer layer of the PCB to its inner layer. The outer layer, in this case, can be either top or the bottom layer. It is applied to the HDI or high-density interconnection boards. Blind via enhances the PCB density through the closed placement of its components.

What Is A Buried Via?

The buried via is a hole that connects two inner layers of a PCB board. The name buried is because the hole is buried in between both upper and lower layers. Besides, you can drill it in many layers of a multi-density PCB. A buried via is also used in the HDI PCBs. There are also other types of PCB vias that we will discuss in the end.

Manufacturing Of Via

There are two ways to make a PCB via like the hole is drilled either before adding various layers to the circuit board, or after making all layers. The manufacturer drills all vias and then finishes them in copper.

• You must take care of the drill depth while making the buried and blind vias, because an extra deep hole can distort signals, reducing their speed.
• On the other hand, a very shallow hole can break a connection, affecting the PCB performance. Even, the PCB can stop working due to poor drilling, so give it to expert hands.
• The manufacturer should also know all the dos and don’ts of pcb assembly. So, always hire a good designer and manufacturer for your custom PCB.

How To Fill Or Cover Vias

Via cover must prevent the entrapment of chemicals or other substances within the holes, which can eventually cause defects to the printed circuit board. Vias are filled with conductive or non-conductive paste. Blind vias and via-in-pads are filled with well-designed electroplating.
If you are looking to move heat from one side of the printed circuit board to the other, you will likely opt for a conductive fill.
Vias must be sealed or covered by copper plating. The combination of the sequential build-up of technology and the mechanical processes can disturb the buried via plating, resulting in problems with the board. To prevent this problem, the vias are filled with resin before being plated.
A via-in-pad must be plated because you are putting in a component connection, and you can’t have a recessed hole.
Now, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of blind and buried vias.

Advantages That You Get From Blind And Buried Vias

1. The blind and buried vias help design a PCB faster than other methods.
2. In the case of typical boards, these vias are compatible with the component density, and you don’t need to add more layers to your board.
3. Both blind and buried vias enhance the function of the HDI boards, providing high power. They are ideal for BGA components of precise pitch, as they provide a wide surface area, unlike the through-hole vias.
4. They are the best for a multilayered PCB, like a board with a minimum of 4 layers. These vias help where a through-plated via fails to meet the PCB performance requirements. These holes don’t have to face the density limitations of a typical PCB design.
5. They enhance the board density without a need to increase the PCB size. So, you can use the blind and buried vias for high-end PCB products. Such types of vias are ideal for consumer products or electronics.


The blind and buried vias increase the overall cost of the PCB because of extra manufacturing work. So, they are costly than typical PCBs, because you need more time for hole drilling and other processes. Keep this factor in your mind before ordering your HDI circuit board with blind and buried holes.

Tips To Consider For Selecting The Right PCB Via

Both users and PCB designers should work together to bring the best product. The buyer should tell the designer about his requirements, like PCB components, size, type of via, number of connectors, etc.

Select A Suitable Type Of Via

You must choose the right type of via for a PCB. Like, if the board has several layers, go for blind and buried via. But, choose a through-hole via for a one-sided PCB. There are also other types of vias and the designer must know where to fit them.
Compatible Via Size And Tolerance

Generally, the PCB thickness determines the size of via it should have. A standard via has a 10 mil size that becomes 7 mils after copper plating. Whereas in micro via, you can have a 4 mil via, be it mechanically or laser drilled. Moreover, the hole or via should have enough size or tolerance to hold the connectors.

Compatible Technology

The blind and buried vias don’t go well on all boards. So, the PCB supplier must choose a stack up compatible with via technology, and the same goes to other via types.

Follow The IPC Guidelines

The designers should always consider the IPC guidelines in terms of technology. Like, they should focus on the right distance between vias in case of several layers. Every PCB supplier should have the IPC design guidelines to avoid any mistakes. The guidelines regarding Class 2, Class 3, Class 3DS are essential to consider as they are not similar.

Consider The Angular Ring Requirements

After drilling each layer’s pad, comes the stage of the annular ring and its requirements should be according to Class 2 and 3. The driller should know how to deal with tolerances while drilling through PCB.

The annular ring helps to have enough surface in the internal layers, maintaining the copper connection on a specific layer before a through-hole plating. Like, you should maintain the electrical connections keeping in mind the material and drill tolerances,

Micro Via Plating

When it comes to a micro via, you should give the right requirements to your PCB supplier. Like, how do fill via; through electrical or thermal epoxy and then copper plate it? This step helps to have a well-finished PCB, preventing vias from external elements.

The Drill File
Each connection has a via or hole that must be according to the drill file. In a blind via, the drill diameter and hole’s depth ratio should be 1:1; however, it can be more depending on the PCB thickness.
In the case of buried via, this ratio should be 1:12, but it can be more depending on the HDI PCB.

Other via Types

We have discussed the blind, buried, and through-hole vias, but there are also types of vias used for PCB design, so let’s study them.
Micro via: A micro via is smaller than all other vias. Even a naked eye can’t see it as it’s so small, so you need a microscope. They are used for a high-density PCB to provide more routing area.
A micro via reduces the issues, such as parasitic resistance that is common in the HDI boards. But, the micro via involves more time to drill and care, so the PCB designers prefer teardrops.
Stacked via: The stacked vias are also laminated and they are either buried or blind vias. A stacked via connects different layers on PCB. They appear to be on top of each other, so they are known as stacked vias.
Staggered via: the staggered vias are also used for multilayered PCBs, but they don’t overlap so we call them staggered. This via has a complex design but it involves less cost compared to the stacked via.
Skip via: The skip via is a hole that passes through different PCB layers but it does not have any electrical connection with specific layers. A skip via is either blind, buried, or overlapping.
Via-in-pad: It is common via used for large PCB pads, such as BGA or MOSFET. Such vias help to have components’ thermal dissipation. However, the designer knows if via in pad is suitable or not because it may affect soldering.
Whether it’s blind, buried, or some other via, you must hire an experienced PCB manufacturing company. The manufacturer should be professional and know the drilling techniques to make these vias.

PNC is providing top-notch PCB design and assembling services at affordable rates. Interested to know more about PCB Vias, write us at sales@pnconline.com

10 Best PCB Design Software

10 Best PCB Design Software

As the electronic industry is growing day by day, the demand for better and efficient printed circuit boards is also increasing. With a massive growth in wearable technology, printed circuit boards need to be of high quality and accurately designed to perform well. As we know that every electronic device either large or small, completely relies on the printed circuit board. They function as the heart of any device. Any digital gadget you are using in your daily life, either it’s your smartphone or your smartwatch, or maybe a digital calculator or most probably a digital clock, this all is possible because of the evolution in the modern printed circuit board. The rapid growth in printed circuit boards has made it possible for engineers to decrease the size of the daily used gadgets and make them available in hands.

Complex devices such as smartphones and smartwatches and military applications, all require some specific kind of printed circuit board installed into them depending on the requirement. Testing the reason for designing a printed circuit board is a task that needs to be done carefully. Designing the printed circuit board means giving a physical existence to your idea of a printed circuit board. Engineers want to use the best software for the design sign of the printed circuit board. For a better designing experience, much software is designed to help the engineers in making the best designs.

There are several choices available once you start searching for the best software to design a printed circuit board. But you need to know certain factors before designing your circuit board. Let’s look into this.

How to choose the right software for designing a PCB?

As we have discussed before, with the increasing demand for wearable technology, the demand for the best-printed circuit board design is increasing accordingly. And this process needs to be taken care of because printed circuit boards act as the main core function of any device whether it is small or large. Now the question may arise why designing is so important before the manufacturing process of printed circuit boards. The simple answer is to avoid problems.

Once the design is not done right, it can cause several problems after and before the manufacturers of printed circuit boards. It may cause the failure of the entire system which is not acceptable. So simply means to say that the design affects almost all the aspects of the circuit board. If the design is not right for the device if the material is not according to mark if the traces are not put correctly if the vias are not connected properly then the circuit board will not work or may work in some unexpected ways.

The problem may happen as lack of desired functionality and overheating which can further lead to devise failure. So, the key to success is to design the right software. But as you have seen, the market has grown up so immensely, it is not possible to choose the best software according to your requirement at once. Instead, you need to research certain factors so that you can make sure that you are choosing the right.

Easy to learn:

Well, this applies to almost every device. Even if it is not specifically electronics, it should be easy enough that it can be learned so fast. In other cases, it would overwhelm the user and the user will get distracted or lose his interest. So, the best software should be in easy language, not coding but the basic understanding should be done with keeping the user view in mind. Moreover, the learning period should be shorter as well as easy. The shorter the learning curve is, the sooner the user can start using the software. So, it is compulsory to keep the user interested in your hands.

On the other hand, a steeper learning curve means the longest period on how to do the program. In this way, the user will learn for so long without implementation and this is not the desired phase. For achieving the best experience, the user must be hitting the ground sooner by keeping the learning curve shorter. But you need to ensure that you are not compromising on specific features of the software.

Easy to use:

At first glance, the user is not looking toward the amazing features, component libraries, and automation, instead, he is looking at the ability of how easy it is to use the software. The level of its complexity will let the user decide if he should be going with a particular software or not. The developer needs to deep down the subject from user intuitiveness to accessing tools easily, this is a wide topic and difficult to handle. If the user’s interface and view of using and accessing the tool are easy then your software is the easily available choice.

The number of clicking and Keystroke should be kept as minimum as it can to avoid ambiguity in the software. Moreover, designing software by keeping the lay audience in mind is also a good approach. In this way, you will intentionally keep the software as easy as possible.


Although the features, learning period, and complexity of using software also matter in the market, the main thing that matters is how much it costs. The cost is something that a user is going to see at first. So, it should be kept in mind that your features are not crossing the cost limit. It should be cost-friendly so users can purchase it immediately for an easy design experience.

Now you have enough idea how to choose the best software in the market for designing printed circuit boards. Let us see the best available software in the market in 2022 that you can choose without thinking for a minute.

EAGLE (Easy Applicable Graphical Layout Editor)

Eagle helps in the design of electronic EDA. It helps the designers of the electronics field specifically in designing the best-printed circuit board design by allowing them to connect different schematic circuit board diagrams. The other main feature of an eagle is its user interface which is so user-friendly and designed by keeping the lay audience in mind. It also helps in transforming the vision into files with the help of stimulation and then the Printed Circuit board Fabrication process.

Altium Designer:
Altium is another best design software for printed circuit boards. It is no less than the eagle and mostly both are compared on behalf of features because both offer easy functionality. Altium offers both 2D and 3D toggles depending upon the designer’s needs. STEP model is followed for working in Altium.

Moreover, the PCB design can be improved by using the previous designs available. The 3D model is monitored by accessing mechanical data. Additionally, Altium allows the exchange of data with MCAD systems.

The best feature of Kicad is that it is open source. So new features can be added daily. Many intelligent designers are contributing to the software, and it is increasing its functionality day by day. The other advantage is its easy user interface. Its first view is so user-friendly that it helps the user in maintaining the flow. Moreover, it can be run on Windows and Linux.


EasyEda is the best designing tool which is both web and cloud base. It is zero-install integrating schematic capture and PCB layout can be designed in a seamless browser environment.


Allegro is the most reputed software available in the market and is commonly used by large companies that make motherboards. It was launched by Cadence. This software has features that help in designing large motherboards. That’s the reason this software holds considerable market shares for computer design software.


WG mentor introduced WG in 2005 and it was windows based. As the layout of the software should be great to manage the PCB design. So according to layout WG is the king of all software as it manages the layout most professionally. It is also recommended by many PCB designers.


Fritzing is also open-source software. It is designed to develop CAD software with the help of hardware design. As a hobby CAD helps designers and artists quickly move from design to prototype.


PADS Layout, PADS Logic, and PADS router are also included in the simple PADS software. It is the best for CAD layout. Its easy-to-use interface makes it the best choice for EDA.


Simply operation functions and strong stimulation make the OrCAD best for EDA development. OrCAD was developed in the 1980s and since then it is improved. It is recommended by electric designers because of its easy functionality.


Protel is also known as Altium and has the same functionality as we have discussed in Altium. It was introduced in the late 80s and since then it is ranked among highly used software for EDA designs. It is recommended because it has experience dealing with almost every design of PCB. It is released with its new features and leading the market in amazing manners.

So these are the latest software in the PCB design industry. Should you have any questions related to your design and or pcb assembly services, feel free to email us at sales@pnconline.com

PCB fabrication using green Soldermask

PCB fabrication using green Soldermask?

How to use green Soldermask in pcb fabrication.

As we know that printed circuit boards are the building blocks of electronic devices. It is not wrong if we say that the electronic industry is relying on the quality of printed circuit boards in order to provide better functionality and performance. Now let us move forward with the fact that the printed circuit board is something we need to understand first if we are talking about electronics. Maybe you have seen one in your computer or other commonly used gadgets. What color came to mind? Let me guess! Is it a green board we usually see on our computers? Yes! Printed circuit boards are usually designed in this color. Although there are many other colors available, a vast majority of circuits are designed in green color.

There are a number of reasons for choosing green and we will discuss it further.
But before that let us make one thing clear. The green color of the PC board doesn’t mean that it is green all the way through. It is the outer part that is visible. And that other part is the solder mask of the circuit. So now we have another point. If you want to understand the color philosophy of the circuit, you need to understand what solder masking is. And why it is needed in the circuit.

In the manufacturing process of printed circuit boards, the copper circuitry is etched on the glass fiber interior. This circuitry helps the circuit in avoiding short circuits and soldering errors. The hue of the solder mask is used to protect that copper circuitry and it is the reason that the printed circuit board looks green. But the green color can be modified according to the need and to differentiate multiple printed circuit boards. For example, there is variation in the circuitry of colors provided by design companies. Black, blue, green, and red is provided as standard and commercial color for the solder masking. The electrical traces inside the board are shielded from contamination and moisture with the help of the solder mask.

Moreover, it helps in regulating the process of molten solder flux. There is a plain drab and yellow core of the conventional FR-4 circuits. But there is a variation for the solder masking. We have a number of colors available for solder masking such as white, black, blue, red, and yellow and usually decided during the PCB design portion of the job. Moreover, it is interesting to know that many uncommon colors are also in the hue list such as purple, orange, smooth, red, etc. similarly most combined colors are also available as an extravagant for the boards. So now when we have known that the number of choices is available then the question is even more strongly that why green? Or you can simply say why green is preferred when we have other choices too.

Now we are going to see the reasons why green is the most commonly used color for the solder masking of the printed circuit boards. There are a number of reasons, and we will see the important ones.

Reasons for the green color of PCB

In the early era of technical constraints, humans were controlling the quality of the circuit manually by verifying the board. So, many factors explain the green color of the PCB. As we have discussed before the green color means only the exterior of the printed circuit board. This does not mean that the inner PCB would also be of the same color. The exterior sheet is solder masking.

There are a number of factors that affect the copper traces present inside the circuit board such as oxidation, humidity, contamination, and FOD. The solder mask is the role that reduces the chance of these effects on the circuit board. Now let’s see the reasons for overlying the green sheet over the exterior sheet of the printed circuit board.

Visually relieve color:

Colors may relieve you or exhaust you depending upon their tendency to affect your sight. It may exhaust your min dot work on tiny circuits. But it is proved by psychologists and neurologists that the spectrum of green color has a relieving and smoothie impact on your body and mind. The green color may help in relieving tiredness and fatigue. Squinting at the tiny circuit is difficult but green wavelength has relaxing effects on the body, so it is easy to work on this layer.

Moreover, it is medically proved that the human eyes and cones are most sensitive to the green color. It is easy to distinguish green color as the eyes are robust to green color. Therefore, the traces, empty areas, silkscreens, electrodes, pads, and printings have greater contrast especially during the pcb assembly process. It is easy to detect the flaws in the outer layer if one looks simply at the outer layer. This is easy because of the color contrast used in the outer layer. If you compare the green color solder mask with others such as white, black, red. You will notice that it is easy to distinguish spots in the green color because of high contrasts. Although there are a number of techniques that are being used for spot detection such as flying probe technique and automatic optical inspection. These techniques are highly effective in spotting errors. But the technical reason for using green color remains the same.

Physical superiority of green color:

R&D is preferring green color for making high-quality solder mask oils because of the typical convention of using green hues. The functionality of the resin is impacted in the duration and the actual environment by organic chemical pigmentation. When the demand is reaching the limitation then there is no restriction for choosing a pink board. But the fact is, no other color in the aesthetic palette possesses the qualities same as green color. Moreover, the solder mask dams of 0.1mm can only be produced reliably by commercial green color. On the other hand, 0.12mm can be achieved by red, blue and yellow.

Additionally white and black can produce 0.15mm dams. Solder mask dams play an important role in fine pitch components and integrated circuits. Both ICs and fine pitch components are essential in shielding solder masks from forming.
It is also interesting to know that chlorine is the basis of the green color in the green solder oil. Halogens are made in PCB substrate when chlorine is combined with bromine. Halogens have a severe impact on health and also affect the environment if disposed of inappropriately. But you can also go for halogen-free solder masks as they are also available in the market. But you have to switch to some other color for a halogen-free solder mask.


Silkscreen techniques are used when we need to apply solder masking. Across the screen mesh, a large glob of oil is dragged. There is a circuit board underneath which is sent for the curing and another board is pulled under the solder mesh. But there is a pause if you want to apply another color. Because for this purpose you need to wash the silkscreen in order to remove excess oil from the solder mask and then you can apply a new color. Moreover, you need a silkscreen station for each color.

The cost of the circuit board would be affected if you are changing color, increasing the thickness of the board, using multiple pictures, and increasing the number of possible combinations. The wastage of material would also be increased in this way. If the industry is not refusing to take your circuit board, even then you are paying more than your budget in this case which is of course not a good choice. But you can save your cost if you are going for the commercial green colors and their features. Moreover, you should also keep in mind that making a new solder mask that is visually appealing, cures well, applies, and adheres well and a good insulator is not an easy process at all. For your special request such as for matte color, you need to pay an extra amount.

So, there are a number of choices available for you to consider in the case of the colors of the printed circuit board. Every color has its pros and cons. Commonly green is preferred because of its efficiency over other colors but you can choose as per your need.

PNC is the market leader in providing cost-effective pcb assembly services. Just email us at sales@pnconline.com to get your query sorted.

Printed Circuit Board Signal Conditioning Process

Printed Circuit Board Signal Conditioning Process

The process of data acquisition is known as signal processing. This acquisition is done by an instrument which is known as the signal conditioner. There is a conversion of signals that happened in this process. The signal conditioner converts the signal from one form such as electrical or mechanical to another form. The input signal is converted into the output signal in the signal conditioning process. Now the question may arise why do we need to convert the input signal into an output signal? The simple answer is that the signal needs to be amplified.

This amplification helps the signal to be converted into a compatible and easy-to-read form. This form of signal helps in data acquisition and machine control. Analog signals are converted into digital signals but before that, correct preparation is made. In the signal conditioning process, we manipulate a signal in a way that it can be converted and further proceed for the next step. Mechanical and environmental measurements are made in many electronic acquisitions for the measure. These measurements are done with the angle of specific sensors such as temperature and vibrations. But these sensors cannot work accurately for the measurement of the signals if the signal conditioning is not compelled yet.

Certain signals tend to have a very low voltage level. For these types of signals, amplification is required before they can be digitized properly. The best example of these signals is thermocouple signals. Some of the other sensors such as accelerometer, strain gauges, and resistance temperature detector cannot work until the excitation to operate is not completed. All these technologies are the best example of signal conditioning.

Because of its importance, we can say that signal conditional can be considered as the fundamental block of modern data acquisitions taken in consideration during the PCB design step. Physical measurement is the end goal of the data acquisition system. The following basic components are achieved by the signal conditioning process:

• Analog to digital convertor
• Sensor
• Signal conditioning
• Computer with DAQ

Use Of signal conditioning:

As discussed before, the basic task of signal conditioning is the conversion of the signal. The signals are converted from the input form to the output form. Most commonly, the input signals are of the electric type. Now why the conversion is required. This conversion is needed when the conventional signals cannot process the actual signal easily and it needs to be converted so that interpretation can be done correctly.

Frequency, electric charge, AC voltage, electric current, DC voltage, and current are basic signals that are accepted by the signal conditioning process.

A data acquisition system cannot work until it is connected to several signals and a wide variety of sensors. The arranged process is happened for the signal converting. The analog signal is taken by the signal conditioner for better manipulation. Once the signal is manipulated, it is then sent to the analog to digital converter system. The analog to the digital converted system is the end resource and it helps in digitizing the signal so it can be used in further processing. The basic purpose of the signal conditioning business is the conversion from analog to digital signals.

The digital domain is achieved by this process and this domain is then represented, displayed, stored, and analyzed. Input can be measured from a sensor that is used to measure strain, temperature, resistance, and acceleration. Moreover, the input can also be achieved by relays, switches, encoders, and clocks. A huge number of varieties can be interpreted from signal conditioners, this variety of signals include the output type.

There are some basic functionalities of the signal conditioning process. We will see the functionalities later. First, we need to understand the process of signal conditioning after the Printed Circuit board Fabrication is done.

Process of signal conditioning:

Following are the steps that are included in the signal conditioning process. The detail of every step is given for better understanding.

Step 1: Adjustment of a signal according to noise ratio:
The signal is adjusted to the noise ratio with the help of amplification and attenuation. In the electronic dictionary, you can say that amplification and attenuation are two opposite subjects. The deterioration of analog signals happens because of the background noise in the transmission process.

There comes the term signal-to-noise ratio. This means the signal strength ratio to unwanted background interference. This ratio is then increased with the help of amplification by magnifying the voltage level of the input signal. For example, in amplification, a signal of 0-1mv is converted into 0-10v.

On the other hand, in the attenuation process, the input amplitude is decreased. This process is done so that the signal can be fit in the optimal range of the device digitizer.

Step 2: removal of voltage signal for the prevention of equipment from damage:
The filtration and isolation of the input signal are required by the signal conditioning process. This is done because the unwanted background noise that is unwanted needs to be removed. Moreover, the removal of voltage signals that are far beyond the in-line digitizer is also compulsory.

There is a considerable difference in filtering and isolating processes. The filtering is done when noise needs to be rejected from a predefined frequency range. We can say that the isolation process is somehow similar. But the difference is a protection step of data acquisition and control system form the from voltage spikes is done. These voltage spikes can damage the entire data acquisition system.

Step 3: using controlled current or voltage for excitation technique:
Transducers and their subtypes require the excitation process. The operation of an active sensor is done with the help of the external sensor. A few types of signals that require external power to proceed further are strain gauges, accelerometers, transmitters, resistors, thermistors, and RTDs.

Step 4: signal linearization
Sometimes a signal cannot exhibit a linear relationship to the actual measurement. These types of signals can also be produced by some sensor equipment. To overcome this problem, we need a linearization process. As clear from the name linearization is done to optimize this signal according to the actual measurement.

The voltage of the input signal is mapped with the corresponding value requirement by physical measurement. Linearization is a very common signal connection process. The most important use of linearization is in industrial temperature measurement.

Now you have understood the process of signal conditioning in depth. Above mentioned steps need to be followed step by step for better signal conversion. Now it is necessary to understand the basic function of signal conditioning. How it is done and what are the benefits of signal conditioning.

Let’s understand the functionality and the benefits of this process now.

Functions of signal conditioners:

As we have discussed before, the main functions of signal conditioners are filtering, isolation and amplification. If these steps are not done correctly then inefficiencies and inaccuracy can happen. These can lead to incorrect output, loss of data, and other problems. So, the question arises how you can avoid these problems?

Now how would you know which type of signal conditioning is best for you? Well, the type of input signal you are going to use for processing will decide this. The other factors that make an impact on the type of signal conditioning process are desired type of output, available power for isolation in the quality criteria of the signal.

Now let’s understand the basic PC BOARD functions such as accuracy, flexibility, and the isolation required by signal conditioning.


Accuracy is the main thing to be noticed in the signal conditioning process. There is a broad variety of accuracy along with signal conditioning. There is a direct relation of accuracy between the conditioner and the accuracy of the other equipment. For example, the sensor that is used to provide the signal. An extremely accurate signal conditioner cannot perform well if the sensor is used in the process is not precise and working correctly. So, in a nutshell, you can say that to get the highly correct and efficient output, every degree of accuracy should be the same in the signal conditioner and other parts of the system. Otherwise, the device and cost would be wasted with a high level of precision.


As clear from the name flexibility in the signal conditioner means processing with a number of signals. A wider range of signal types can be processed with the flexibility feature. It is often considered as an additional advantage. Many designers and manufacturers add this feature to the product just to increase its functionality and efficiency.

Because if the device is dealing with a wide range of signals, it is likely to be more precise and calibrated for sensors. The replacement and change of other important parts of the system can be done with the help of flexibility. This will not affect the other part of the system.


Isolation is used in the signal conditioning process at more than one point. As a clear from the name, this process isolates the components and encourages that there is no interconnection between electric and other parts of the devices. The isolation process is required because it will enhance the common quality of the system. Moreover, the signal that needs to be isolated would also be decided according to configuration.
Should you have any further questions regarding the Signal Conditioning Process, feel free to contact us at sales@pnconline.com

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PC BOARD Electronics Components Optimization

PC BOARD Electronics Components Optimization

Can you imagine yourself all dressed up, but you have no place to go? Well, that’s awkward because we all need to do something but for a reason. And that reason should be enough strong that could stop us not to distracted by other various factors. The same happens to the engineer in the circuit board design. Sometimes, an engineer would do a mistake. What’s that mistake? He would probably be all dressed up, but he would not pay attention to the end goal. Instead, he would get distracted by other external factors and end up with nothing. And as a result, he would have a body of the circuit without a soul. That’s sounds bad right? So, what is that one thing that an engineer can apply to avoid this type of situation?

A clear answer, keep an eye on designing and optimizing. Before you launch your electronic component or product, you need to pay attention to the reasonable amount of material used in it.The fact that is overlooked in the virtual designing of the circuit board is that the product would have a physical structure also. The virtual designing process may include the components and design that are not beneficial or may not be available anymore. The database of virtual designing usually includes these components, and an engineer can get some hiccups in their assembly and prototyping process. And if these critical and useful components remain in the PCB design till the end of the designing then many severe problems can also occur.

For example, a delay in production can happen and the client may be unhappy. But the good news is, all these problems can be reduced if you take some steps and make some efforts to optimize your electric component section. But before we discuss the tips and tricks that need to be taken for better optimization of electronic components, one should understand how component procurement takes place.

Component selection and procurement:

You can get ease and freedom to work if the electronic components are placed on the circuit board correctly at a low frequency. The difficulty may arise when final design and heat dissipation occurs. Well, it is easy to deal with low frequency. But in the case of high frequency, the slightest mistake and wrong positioning of electric components that may be valid electrically would end in compromising the overall functionality of the circuit board. So, in a nutshell, it is being said that positioning any electric component in the circuit board is a crucial task to perform. In the case of high frequency, the requirement is also high for good positioning of the components. This will help in optimizing the signal path and improving the circuit operation.

The best placement for the circuit board can only be obtained by following the strict theoretical rules and some powerful software that helps designers in creating a sophisticated circuit. The length of the critical path should be reduced typically. If all the electric components are placed in the right arrangement, then the overall functionality of the circuit board can also be increased. And the physical size would be reduced accordingly.

Component selection is one of the most significant tasks that happen in circuit design and in the lifecycle of product development that may affect printed circuit board assembly. Then, the other tasks are performed to check if the components are integrated, and the device is performing the required functionality or not. Each component is available for a certain period and a graph is made for clear understanding. The product would be available in variation. A new production would be distributed modestly and then it would go to the peak once established and then decline because it is replaced with new technologies.

Following are the few terms that need to be taken care of while optimizing an electronic circuit. Some of them are related to the positioning of the components and some explain the optimization of the signal in any electronic circuit. An engineer should take care of every step so that the outcome of the circuit can work efficiently and effectively.

Placement of components for heat dissipation:

The positioning of components and optimization of a circuit board is not that easy task to do. It is always demanding and delicate to perform. The general recommendation is that the number of elements such as resistor, inductor, capacitor, indicator, and others should be connected with an extremely short track and device connected very close together. This is beneficial when the circuit is operating at a high frequency.

The rule is compulsory to follow for better functionality but sometimes, minimizing the length of the circuit may result in several thermal problems, and uneven accumulation of heat can happen, and some other unexplainable faults can also damage the entire functionality of the circuit board. So, to avoid these types of consequences, it is recommended to use the thermal ducts and go for the parallel positioning of the components.

With the advancement in technology, some techniques rapidly suggest an optimal positioning for components and then a uniform distribution so heat flow can be maintained. This ends up with the excellent thermal performance of the entire Printed Circuit Board circuit.

Placement of high-frequency components:

It is difficult to handle a system if it exceeds the frequency of 1 MHZ. The positioning of capacitive and inductive electrical and electronic components is critical to manage. The components may act differently even if they are arranged and electrically converted. So, the performance of the circuit board would be compromised. The motion of the capacitor and inductance of just a few centimeters can change the game by changing the functionality of the circuit. For example, you must have seen the transistors and receivers on the radio. HF amplifiers and other equipment that work in the high frequency.

Their frequency can be changed accordingly, and they will catch signals from the set frequency. The signal may be spread in the surrounding leaving the circuit in the order of MHz the positioning of the circuit board can be compromised (positively or negatively) with a small variation in the wiring connection. The resistors are difficult to manage and should be done in the most attentive environment.

Genetic algorithms:

As artificial intelligence is covering many other aspects of technology successfully, it had its impact on the world of electronics also. Some techniques help in the implementation of genetic algorithms so that the positioned components can be optimized, and thermal degree can be evaluated in the duration of the operation.

The convection can be cooled by airflow if the genetic algorithms are present on the surface of the board. The thermal model of the circuit acts in two dimensions. So, the optimization of the circuit and position of this differently acting thermal criteria is handled by the algorithm genetic. And this would result in the optimization of electronic components and positioning of components on the circuit board in a three-dimensional way.

All this would be done with the help of genetic algorithms. But arranging and finding the right arrangement is not a piece of cake. There are hundreds and thousands of arrangements that can take place in the circuit. For this purpose, the software has to manage the million permutations and combinations to find the right arrangement. Once the right arrangement is found, it is implemented for the efficient functionality of the circuit board.

Optimizing electrical components selection:

The impact of the component positioning on a circuit board is often undervalued. But the truth is your component choice can affect the assembly of the circuit board in a significant manner. The right choice for component packages can reduce pc board steps in the circuit board either through-hole or surface mount devices. However, some specific steps need to be followed for the overall functionality and optimization of the electric circuit board.

Determine the quantity available in the designing process:

Checking the quantity of the component is important because it helps in manufacturing delays of the circuit in searching for alternatives that perform equally well to the components from alternative markets.

Choose reputable suppliers for components:

Your product quality is depending on the components you are going to use in the circuit. So, selecting reputable suppliers and distributors is equally important to manufacturing. It should be mentioned in the manufacturing procedure which suppliers you are going to deal with for your product components.

Components should have comparable replacements:

Choosing components with replacement can help in minimizing a lot of tasks. Such as requirement gathering and redesigning and redefinition in case of components contingency. The need to update can also be managed.

Maintain access to the current component of the lifecycle:

Having a quick view of the current data rate is important. As the process proceeds further, you will need to check if the particular component is doing great or not. Similarly, this choice is important so you can check if you want to go with the particular component or you should select any other alternative.

Investigate the component:

This step is important to ensure the quality of your component.

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