SMT is a technique that is being used to manufacture assembled pcb’s. Many years ago, circuits were large and cumbersome using hard wire and large through hole components, resulting in electrical products that were large and difficult to operate and transport. Comparing to the conventional method, SMT offers the following advantages: high density, good stability, less cost, miniaturization, sound field control, and other features.
For the size of the previously used through hole components to be decreased and modified to be matched with the smaller electronic component, the electronic device must become micro, such as the small component size 0201. Particularly notable are the large-scale and highly integrated circuits. To fulfill the requirements of consumers while also increasing the competitiveness of the market, we must utilize surface mount components for PC Board assembly. As the electronic component becomes smaller, it must become more useful and intelligent as well. As a result, surface mount technology has become more popular in the electronic industry. Furthermore, the standards for SMT are becoming increasingly stringent to fulfill the demands.
• Inspecting material using a machine or manual detection.
• The loader is used to load several printed circuit boards in a row during the setting cycle time.
• A squeegee is used in screen printing to ensure that the solder is evenly distributed over the panel of the PCB for reflow.
• SPI inspection is the optical approach used in the examination of solder paste.
• Pick and Place machines are used for placing SMT parts in a precise location, which necessitates the use of very fast processing speeds.
• After the pick and place has completed its task, the AOI machine is used to inspect the quality, particularly for defects.
• The purpose of a reflow oven is to melt and cool the solder that is situated between the original component and the printed circuit board by international temperature standards. The device and PCB board may then be fused firmly together, resulting in electronic functionality that meets requirements.
• After completing the reflow oven process, the completed original component and PCB board are subjected to AOI testing. Its purpose is to check the quality of the solder and assembly of the pasted printed circuit board. It automatically scans the printed circuit board using the camera. A collection of pictures compares the solder junctions that have been verified to the qualifying parameters stored in the database. Then, using image processing, it checks for flaws on the printed circuit board. It indicates the faults via the use of a display or an automated mark for maintenance staff to fix.
• The completed PCB board is unloaded using an unloader.
Followings are the layouts of SMT lines:
1. First is the Layout of a single line using a single-rail pick and place machine. This line is a fundamental standard manufacturing line that includes the following machines:
• The loader is used to load bare PCB boards in a row at the same time during the setting cycle timing.
• The squeegee, in the solder paste printer, is used to wipe the solder uniformly over the panel of PCB in preparation for the next reflow operation.
• A conveyor is essentially a device that transports printed circuit boards from one machine to another.
• When solder is placed between the original component and the PCB board, a single rail reflow oven is utilized to melt and cool the solder.
• It is necessary to store PCB boards that have exited the reflow oven vertically to prevent damage.
• The online AOI was used to inspect the completed PCB board after it had been through the reflow oven process.
• It is necessary to utilize an automated unloader to get the completed PCB board automatically.
2. A two-to-one line with a single-rail pick and place machine is the layout for this machine. It achieves dual-rail production by merging two independent SMT lines into a single dual-rail line. Because this architecture is intended for a single-lane pick and place machine with just one dual-rail reflow oven available, it achieves dual-rail production. The special machinery that was used in the arrangement included the following:
• A stacker and magazine loader in one machine.
• Conveyor for Printed Circuit Boards.
• Reflow oven with two rails.
3. Two-to-one line with a dual rail pick and place machine layout is used. In this design, the dual-rail chip mounter and dual-rail reflow oven are combined with three related dual-rail conveyors to provide a seamless connection between the two machines. The benefit of this arrangement is that it allows for the addition of a second SMT assembly line, thereby doubling production capacity. Additionally, the utilization of a PCB Shuttle Conveyor, a dual-rail pick and place machine, and a dual-rail reflow oven resulted in significant space savings.
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